文档目录

CHANGE COLUMN

ALTER TABLE.. CHANGE COLUMN 语句用于在已有表上更改列,包括对列进行重命名,和将数据改为兼容类型。

从 v5.1.0 版本起,TiDB 开始支持 Reorg 数据的类型变更,包括但不限于:

  • 从 varchar 转换为 bigint
  • decimal 精度修改
  • 从 varchar(10) 到 varchar(5) 的长度压缩

语法图

AlterTableStmt
ALTERIgnoreOptionalTABLETableNameAlterTableSpecListOptAlterTablePartitionOptANALYZEPARTITIONPartitionNameListINDEXIndexNameListAnalyzeOptionListOpt
AlterTableSpec
TableOptionListSETTIFLASHREPLICALengthNumLocationLabelListCONVERTTOCharsetKwCharsetNameDEFAULTOptCollateADDColumnKeywordOptIfNotExistsColumnDefColumnPosition(TableElementList)ConstraintPARTITIONIfNotExistsNoWriteToBinLogAliasOptPartitionDefinitionListOptPARTITIONSNUMCHECKTRUNCATEPARTITIONOPTIMIZEREPAIRREBUILDPARTITIONNoWriteToBinLogAliasOptAllOrPartitionNameListCOALESCEPARTITIONNoWriteToBinLogAliasOptNUMDROPColumnKeywordOptIfExistsColumnNameRestrictOrCascadeOptPRIMARYKEYPARTITIONIfExistsPartitionNameListKeyOrIndexIfExistsCHECKIdentifierFOREIGNKEYIfExistsSymbolEXCHANGEPARTITIONIdentifierWITHTABLETableNameWithValidationOptIMPORTDISCARDPARTITIONAllOrPartitionNameListTABLESPACEREORGANIZEPARTITIONNoWriteToBinLogAliasOptReorganizePartitionRuleOptORDERBYAlterOrderItem,DISABLEENABLEKEYSMODIFYColumnKeywordOptIfExistsCHANGEColumnKeywordOptIfExistsColumnNameColumnDefColumnPositionALTERColumnKeywordOptColumnNameSETDEFAULTSignedLiteral(Expression)DROPDEFAULTCHECKIdentifierEnforcedOrNotINDEXIdentifierIndexInvisibleRENAMECOLUMNKeyOrIndexIdentifierTOIdentifierTO=ASTableNameLockClauseAlgorithmClauseFORCEWITHWITHOUTVALIDATIONSECONDARY_LOADSECONDARY_UNLOAD
ColumnName
Identifier.Identifier.Identifier
ColumnDef
ColumnNameTypeSERIALColumnOptionListOpt
ColumnPosition
FIRSTAFTERColumnName

示例

CREATE TABLE t1 (id int not null primary key AUTO_INCREMENT, col1 INT);
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.11 sec)
INSERT INTO t1 (col1) VALUES (1),(2),(3),(4),(5);
Query OK, 5 rows affected (0.02 sec)
Records: 5  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0
ALTER TABLE t1 CHANGE col1 col2 INT;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.09 sec)
ALTER TABLE t1 CHANGE col2 col3 BIGINT, ALGORITHM=INSTANT;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.08 sec)
ALTER TABLE t1 CHANGE col3 col4 BIGINT, CHANGE id id2 INT NOT NULL;
ERROR 1105 (HY000): can't run multi schema change
CREATE TABLE t (a int primary key);
ALTER TABLE t CHANGE COLUMN a a VARCHAR(10);
ERROR 8200 (HY000): Unsupported modify column: column has primary key flag
CREATE TABLE t (c1 INT, c2 INT, c3 INT) partition by range columns(c1) ( partition p0 values less than (10), partition p1 values less than (maxvalue));
ALTER TABLE t CHANGE COLUMN c1 c1 DATETIME;
ERROR 8200 (HY000): Unsupported modify column: table is partition table
CREATE TABLE t (a INT, b INT as (a+1));
ALTER TABLE t CHANGE COLUMN b b VARCHAR(10);
ERROR 8200 (HY000): Unsupported modify column: column is generated
CREATE TABLE t (a DECIMAL(13, 7));
ALTER TABLE t CHANGE COLUMN a a DATETIME;
ERROR 8200 (HY000): Unsupported modify column: change from original type decimal(13,7) to datetime is currently unsupported yet

MySQL 兼容性

  • 不支持在单个 ALTER TABLE 语句中进行多个更改。
  • 不支持主键列上 [Reorg-Data](/sql-statements/sql-statement-modify-column.md#Reorg-Data Change) 类型的变更。
  • 不支持分区表上的列类型变更。
  • 不支持生成列上的列类型变更。
  • 不支持部分数据类型(例如,部分时间类型、Bit、Set、Enum、JSON 等)的变更,因为 TiDB 中 CAST 函数与 MySQL 的行为存在兼容性问题。

另请参阅