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TiDB Specific Functions

The following functions are TiDB extensions, and are not present in MySQL:

Function nameFunction description
TIDB_BOUNDED_STALENESS()The TIDB_BOUNDED_STALENESS function instructs TiDB to read the data as new as possible within the time range. See also: Read Historical Data Using the AS OF TIMESTAMP Clause
TIDB_DECODE_KEY(str)The TIDB_DECODE_KEY function can be used to decode a TiDB-encoded key entry into a JSON structure containing _tidb_rowid and table_id. These encoded keys can be found in some system tables and in logging outputs.
TIDB_DECODE_PLAN(str)The TIDB_DECODE_PLAN function can be used to decode a TiDB execution plan.
TIDB_IS_DDL_OWNER()The TIDB_IS_DDL_OWNER function can be used to check whether or not the TiDB instance you are connected to is the one that is the DDL Owner. The DDL Owner is the TiDB instance that is tasked with executing DDL statements on behalf of all other nodes in the cluster.
TIDB_PARSE_TSO(num)The TIDB_PARSE_TSO function can be used to extract the physical timestamp from a TiDB TSO timestamp. See also: tidb_current_ts.
TIDB_PARSE_TSO_LOGICAL(num)The TIDB_PARSE_TSO_LOGICAL function can be used to extract the logical timestamp from a TiDB TSO timestamp.
TIDB_VERSION()The TIDB_VERSION function returns the TiDB version with additional build information.
TIDB_DECODE_SQL_DIGESTS(digests, stmtTruncateLength)The TIDB_DECODE_SQL_DIGESTS() function is used to query the normalized SQL statements (a form without formats and arguments) corresponding to the set of SQL digests in the cluster.
VITESS_HASH(str)The VITESS_HASH function returns the hash of a string that is compatible with Vitess' HASH function. This is intended to help the data migration from Vitess.
TIDB_SHARD()The TIDB_SHARD function can be used to create a shard index to scatter the index hotspot. A shard index is an expression index with a TIDB_SHARD function as the prefix.
TIDB_ROW_CHECKSUM()The TIDB_ROW_CHECKSUM function is used to query the checksum value of a row. This function can only be used in SELECT statements within the FastPlan process. That is, you can query through statements like SELECT TIDB_ROW_CHECKSUM() FROM t WHERE id = ? or SELECT TIDB_ROW_CHECKSUM() FROM t WHERE id IN (?, ?, ...). See also: Data integrity validation for single-row data.
CURRENT_RESOURCE_GROUP()The CURRENT_RESOURCE_GROUP function is used to return the resource group name that the current session is bound to. See also: Use Resource Control to Achieve Resource Isolation.
Function nameFunction description
TIDB_BOUNDED_STALENESS()The TIDB_BOUNDED_STALENESS function instructs TiDB to read the data as new as possible within the time range. See also: Read Historical Data Using the AS OF TIMESTAMP Clause
TIDB_DECODE_KEY(str)The TIDB_DECODE_KEY function can be used to decode a TiDB-encoded key entry into a JSON structure containing _tidb_rowid and table_id. These encoded keys can be found in some system tables and in logging outputs.
TIDB_DECODE_PLAN(str)The TIDB_DECODE_PLAN function can be used to decode a TiDB execution plan.
TIDB_IS_DDL_OWNER()The TIDB_IS_DDL_OWNER function can be used to check whether or not the TiDB instance you are connected to is the one that is the DDL Owner. The DDL Owner is the TiDB instance that is tasked with executing DDL statements on behalf of all other nodes in the cluster.
TIDB_PARSE_TSO(num)The TIDB_PARSE_TSO function can be used to extract the physical timestamp from a TiDB TSO timestamp. See also: tidb_current_ts.
TIDB_PARSE_TSO_LOGICAL(num)The TIDB_PARSE_TSO_LOGICAL function can be used to extract the logical timestamp from a TiDB TSO timestamp.
TIDB_VERSION()The TIDB_VERSION function returns the TiDB version with additional build information.
TIDB_DECODE_SQL_DIGESTS(digests, stmtTruncateLength)The TIDB_DECODE_SQL_DIGESTS() function is used to query the normalized SQL statements (a form without formats and arguments) corresponding to the set of SQL digests in the cluster.
VITESS_HASH(str)The VITESS_HASH function returns the hash of a string that is compatible with Vitess' HASH function. This is intended to help the data migration from Vitess.
TIDB_SHARD()The TIDB_SHARD function can be used to create a shard index to scatter the index hotspot. A shard index is an expression index with a TIDB_SHARD function as the prefix.
TIDB_ROW_CHECKSUM()The TIDB_ROW_CHECKSUM function is used to query the checksum value of a row. This function can only be used in SELECT statements within the FastPlan process. That is, you can query through statements like SELECT TIDB_ROW_CHECKSUM() FROM t WHERE id = ? or SELECT TIDB_ROW_CHECKSUM() FROM t WHERE id IN (?, ?, ...). See also: Data integrity validation for single-row data.
CURRENT_RESOURCE_GROUP()The CURRENT_RESOURCE_GROUP function is used to return the resource group name that the current session is bound to. See also: Use Resource Control to Achieve Resource Isolation.

Examples

This section provides examples for some of the functions above.

TIDB_DECODE_KEY

In the following example, the table t1 has a hidden rowid that is generated by TiDB. The TIDB_DECODE_KEY is used in the statement. From the result, you can see that the hidden rowid is decoded and output, which is a typical result for the non-clustered primary key.

SELECT START_KEY, TIDB_DECODE_KEY(START_KEY) FROM information_schema.tikv_region_status WHERE table_name='t1' AND REGION_ID=2\G
*************************** 1. row *************************** START_KEY: 7480000000000000FF3B5F728000000000FF1DE3F10000000000FA TIDB_DECODE_KEY(START_KEY): {"_tidb_rowid":1958897,"table_id":"59"} 1 row in set (0.00 sec)

In the following example, the table t2 has a compound clustered primary key. From the JSON output, you can see a handle that contains the name and value for both of the columns that are part of the primary key.

SHOW CREATE TABLE t2\G
*************************** 1. row *************************** Table: t2 Create Table: CREATE TABLE `t2` ( `id` binary(36) NOT NULL, `a` tinyint(3) unsigned NOT NULL, `v` varchar(512) DEFAULT NULL, PRIMARY KEY (`a`,`id`) /*T![clustered_index] CLUSTERED */ ) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8mb4 COLLATE=utf8mb4_bin 1 row in set (0.001 sec)
SELECT * FROM information_schema.tikv_region_status WHERE table_name='t2' LIMIT 1\G
*************************** 1. row *************************** REGION_ID: 48 START_KEY: 7480000000000000FF3E5F720400000000FF0000000601633430FF3338646232FF2D64FF3531632D3131FF65FF622D386337352DFFFF3830653635303138FFFF61396265000000FF00FB000000000000F9 END_KEY: TABLE_ID: 62 DB_NAME: test TABLE_NAME: t2 IS_INDEX: 0 INDEX_ID: NULL INDEX_NAME: NULL EPOCH_CONF_VER: 1 EPOCH_VERSION: 38 WRITTEN_BYTES: 0 READ_BYTES: 0 APPROXIMATE_SIZE: 136 APPROXIMATE_KEYS: 479905 REPLICATIONSTATUS_STATE: NULL REPLICATIONSTATUS_STATEID: NULL 1 row in set (0.005 sec)
SELECT tidb_decode_key('7480000000000000FF3E5F720400000000FF0000000601633430FF3338646232FF2D64FF3531632D3131FF65FF622D386337352DFFFF3830653635303138FFFF61396265000000FF00FB000000000000F9');
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+ | tidb_decode_key('7480000000000000FF3E5F720400000000FF0000000601633430FF3338646232FF2D64FF3531632D3131FF65FF622D386337352DFFFF3830653635303138FFFF61396265000000FF00FB000000000000F9') | +---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+ | {"handle":{"a":"6","id":"c4038db2-d51c-11eb-8c75-80e65018a9be"},"table_id":62} | +---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+ 1 row in set (0.001 sec)

The first Region of a table starts with a key that only has the table_id of the table. The last Region of the table ends with table_id + 1. Any Regions in between have longer keys that includes a _tidb_rowid or handle.

SELECT TABLE_NAME, TIDB_DECODE_KEY(START_KEY), TIDB_DECODE_KEY(END_KEY) FROM information_schema.TIKV_REGION_STATUS WHERE TABLE_NAME='stock' AND IS_INDEX=0 ORDER BY START_KEY;
+------------+-----------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------------+ | TABLE_NAME | TIDB_DECODE_KEY(START_KEY) | TIDB_DECODE_KEY(END_KEY) | +------------+-----------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------------+ | stock | {"table_id":143} | {"handle":{"s_i_id":"32485","s_w_id":"3"},"table_id":143} | | stock | {"handle":{"s_i_id":"32485","s_w_id":"3"},"table_id":143} | {"handle":{"s_i_id":"64964","s_w_id":"5"},"table_id":143} | | stock | {"handle":{"s_i_id":"64964","s_w_id":"5"},"table_id":143} | {"handle":{"s_i_id":"97451","s_w_id":"7"},"table_id":143} | | stock | {"handle":{"s_i_id":"97451","s_w_id":"7"},"table_id":143} | {"table_id":145} | +------------+-----------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------------+ 4 rows in set (0.031 sec)

TIDB_DECODE_KEY returns valid JSON on success and returns the argument value if it fails to decode.

TIDB_DECODE_PLAN

You can find TiDB execution plans in encoded form in the slow query log. The TIDB_DECODE_PLAN() function is then used to decode the encoded plans into a human-readable form.

This function is useful because a plan is captured at the time the statement is executed. Re-executing the statement in EXPLAIN might produce different results as data distribution and statistics evolves over time.

SELECT tidb_decode_plan('8QIYMAkzMV83CQEH8E85LjA0CWRhdGE6U2VsZWN0aW9uXzYJOTYwCXRpbWU6NzEzLjHCtXMsIGxvb3BzOjIsIGNvcF90YXNrOiB7bnVtOiAxLCBtYXg6IDU2OC41wgErRHByb2Nfa2V5czogMCwgcnBjXxEpAQwFWBAgNTQ5LglZyGNvcHJfY2FjaGVfaGl0X3JhdGlvOiAwLjAwfQkzLjk5IEtCCU4vQQoxCTFfNgkxXzAJMwm2SGx0KHRlc3QudC5hLCAxMDAwMCkNuQRrdgmiAHsFbBQzMTMuOMIBmQnEDDk2MH0BUgEEGAoyCTQzXzUFVwX1oGFibGU6dCwga2VlcCBvcmRlcjpmYWxzZSwgc3RhdHM6cHNldWRvCTk2ISE2aAAIMTUzXmYA')\G
*************************** 1. row *************************** tidb_decode_plan('8QIYMAkzMV83CQEH8E85LjA0CWRhdGE6U2VsZWN0aW9uXzYJOTYwCXRpbWU6NzEzLjHCtXMsIGxvb3BzOjIsIGNvcF90YXNrOiB7bnVtOiAxLCBtYXg6IDU2OC41wgErRHByb2Nfa2V5czogMCwgcnBjXxEpAQwFWBAgNTQ5LglZyGNvcHJfY2FjaGVfaGl0X3JhdGlvOiAwLjAwfQkzLjk5IEtCCU4vQQoxCTFfNgkxXz: id task estRows operator info actRows execution info memory disk TableReader_7 root 319.04 data:Selection_6 960 time:713.1µs, loops:2, cop_task: {num: 1, max: 568.5µs, proc_keys: 0, rpc_num: 1, rpc_time: 549.1µs, copr_cache_hit_ratio: 0.00} 3.99 KB N/A └─Selection_6 cop[tikv] 319.04 lt(test.t.a, 10000) 960 tikv_task:{time:313.8µs, loops:960} N/A N/A └─TableFullScan_5 cop[tikv] 960 table:t, keep order:false, stats:pseudo 960 tikv_task:{time:153µs, loops:960} N/A N/A

TIDB_PARSE_TSO

The TIDB_PARSE_TSO function can be used to extract the physical timestamp from a TiDB TSO timestamp. TSO stands for Time Stamp Oracle and is a monotonically increasing timestamp given out by PD (Placement Driver) for every transaction.

A TSO is a number that consists of two parts:

  • A physical timestamp
  • A logical counter
BEGIN; SELECT TIDB_PARSE_TSO(@@tidb_current_ts); ROLLBACK;
+-----------------------------------+ | TIDB_PARSE_TSO(@@tidb_current_ts) | +-----------------------------------+ | 2021-05-26 11:33:37.776000 | +-----------------------------------+ 1 row in set (0.0012 sec)

Here TIDB_PARSE_TSO is used to extract the physical timestamp from the timestamp number that is available in the tidb_current_ts session variable. Because timestamps are given out per transaction, this function is running in a transaction.

TIDB_VERSION

The TIDB_VERSION function can be used to get the version and build details of the TiDB server that you are connected to. You can use this function when reporting issues on GitHub.

SELECT TIDB_VERSION()\G
*************************** 1. row *************************** TIDB_VERSION(): Release Version: v5.1.0-alpha-13-gd5e0ed0aa-dirty Edition: Community Git Commit Hash: d5e0ed0aaed72d2f2dfe24e9deec31cb6cb5fdf0 Git Branch: master UTC Build Time: 2021-05-24 14:39:20 GoVersion: go1.13 Race Enabled: false TiKV Min Version: v3.0.0-60965b006877ca7234adaced7890d7b029ed1306 Check Table Before Drop: false 1 row in set (0.00 sec)

TIDB_DECODE_SQL_DIGESTS

The TIDB_DECODE_SQL_DIGESTS() function is used to query the normalized SQL statements (a form without formats and arguments) corresponding to the set of SQL digests in the cluster. This function accepts 1 or 2 arguments:

  • digests: A string. This parameter is in the format of a JSON string array, and each string in the array is a SQL digest.
  • stmtTruncateLength: An integer (optional). It is used to limit the length of each SQL statement in the returned result. If a SQL statement exceeds the specified length, the statement is truncated. 0 means that the length is unlimited.

This function returns a string, which is in the format of a JSON string array. The i-th item in the array is the normalized SQL statement corresponding to the i-th element in the digests parameter. If an element in the digests parameter is not a valid SQL digest or the system cannot find the corresponding SQL statement, the corresponding item in the returned result is null. If the truncation length is specified (stmtTruncateLength > 0), for each statement in the returned result that exceeds this length, the first stmtTruncateLength characters are retained and the suffix "..." is added at the end to indicate the truncation. If the digests parameter is NULL, the returned value of the function is NULL.

set @digests = '["e6f07d43b5c21db0fbb9a31feac2dc599787763393dd5acbfad80e247eb02ad5","38b03afa5debbdf0326a014dbe5012a62c51957f1982b3093e748460f8b00821","e5796985ccafe2f71126ed6c0ac939ffa015a8c0744a24b7aee6d587103fd2f7"]'; select tidb_decode_sql_digests(@digests);
+------------------------------------+ | tidb_decode_sql_digests(@digests) | +------------------------------------+ | ["begin",null,"select * from `t`"] | +------------------------------------+ 1 row in set (0.00 sec)

In the above example, the parameter is a JSON array containing 3 SQL digests, and the corresponding SQL statements are the three items in the query results. But the SQL statement corresponding to the second SQL digest cannot be found from the cluster, so the second item in the result is null.

select tidb_decode_sql_digests(@digests, 10);
+---------------------------------------+ | tidb_decode_sql_digests(@digests, 10) | +---------------------------------------+ | ["begin",null,"select * f..."] | +---------------------------------------+ 1 row in set (0.01 sec)

The above call specifies the second parameter (that is, the truncation length) as 10, and the length of the third statement in the query result is greater than 10. Therefore, only the first 10 characters are retained, and "..." is added at the end, which indicates the truncation.

See also:

TIDB_SHARD

The TIDB_SHARD function can be used to create a shard index to scatter the index hotspot. A shard index is an expression index prefixed with a TIDB_SHARD function.

  • Creation:

    To create a shard index for the index field a, you can use uk((tidb_shard(a)), a)). When there is a hotspot caused by monotonically increasing or decreasing data on the index field a in the unique secondary index uk((tidb_shard(a)), a)), the index's prefix tidb_shard(a) can scatter the hotspot to improve the scalability of the cluster.

  • Scenarios:

    • There is a write hotspot caused by monotonically increasing or decreasing keys on the unique secondary index, and the index contains integer type fields.
    • The SQL statement executes an equality query based on all fields of the secondary index, either as a separate SELECT or as an internal query generated by UPDATE, DELETE and so on. The equality query includes two ways: a = 1 or a IN (1, 2, ......).
  • Limitations:

    • Cannot be used in inequality queries.
    • Cannot be used in queries that contain OR mixed with an outmost AND operator.
    • Cannot be used in the GROUP BY clause.
    • Cannot be used in the ORDER BY clause.
    • Cannot be used in the ON clause.
    • Cannot be used in the WHERE subquery.
    • Can be used to scatter unique indexes of only the integer fields.
    • Might not take effect in composite indexes.
    • Cannot go through FastPlan process, which affects optimizer performance.
    • Cannot be used to prepare the execution plan cache.

The following example shows how to use the TIDB_SHARD function.

  • Use the TIDB_SHARD function to calculate the SHARD value.

    The following statement shows how to use the TIDB_SHARD function to calculate the SHARD value of 12373743746:

    SELECT TIDB_SHARD(12373743746);
  • The SHARD value is:

    +-------------------------+ | TIDB_SHARD(12373743746) | +-------------------------+ | 184 | +-------------------------+ 1 row in set (0.00 sec)
  • Create a shard index using the TIDB_SHARD function:

    CREATE TABLE test(id INT PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED, a INT, b INT, UNIQUE KEY uk((tidb_shard(a)), a));

TIDB_ROW_CHECKSUM

The TIDB_ROW_CHECKSUM function is used to query the checksum value of a row. This function can only be used in SELECT statements within the FastPlan process. That is, you can query through statements like SELECT TIDB_ROW_CHECKSUM() FROM t WHERE id = ? or SELECT TIDB_ROW_CHECKSUM() FROM t WHERE id IN (?, ?, ...).

To enable the checksum feature of single-row data in TiDB (controlled by the system variable tidb_enable_row_level_checksum), run the following statement:

SET GLOBAL tidb_enable_row_level_checksum = ON;

This configuration only takes effect for newly created sessions, so you need to reconnect to TiDB.

Create table t and insert data:

USE test; CREATE TABLE t (id INT PRIMARY KEY, k INT, c CHAR(1)); INSERT INTO t values (1, 10, 'a');

The following statement shows how to query the checksum value of the row where id = 1 in table t:

SELECT *, TIDB_ROW_CHECKSUM() FROM t WHERE id = 1;

The output is as follows:

+----+------+------+---------------------+ | id | k | c | TIDB_ROW_CHECKSUM() | +----+------+------+---------------------+ | 1 | 10 | a | 3813955661 | +----+------+------+---------------------+ 1 row in set (0.000 sec)

CURRENT_RESOURCE_GROUP

The CURRENT_RESOURCE_GROUP function is used to show the resource group name that the current session is bound to. When the Resource control feature is enabled, the available resources that can be used by SQL statements are restricted by the resource quota of the bound resource group.

When a session is established, TiDB binds the session to the resource group that the login user is bound to by default. If the user is not bound to any resource groups, the session is bound to the default resource group. Once the session is established, the bound resource group will not change by default, even if the bound resource group of the user is changed via modifying the resource group bound to the user. To change the bound resource group of the current session, you can use SET RESOURCE GROUP.

Example

Create a user user1, create two resource groups rg1 and rg2, and bind the user user1 to the resource group rg1:

CREATE USER 'user1'; CREATE RESOURCE GROUP 'rg1' RU_PER_SEC = 1000; CREATE RESOURCE GROUP 'rg2' RU_PER_SEC = 2000; ALTER USER 'user1' RESOURCE GROUP `rg1`;

Use user1 to log in and view the resource group bound to the current user:

SELECT CURRENT_RESOURCE_GROUP();
+--------------------------+ | CURRENT_RESOURCE_GROUP() | +--------------------------+ | rg1 | +--------------------------+ 1 row in set (0.00 sec)

Execute SET RESOURCE GROUP to set the resource group for the current session to rg2, and then view the resource group bound to the current user:

SET RESOURCE GROUP `rg2`; SELECT CURRENT_RESOURCE_GROUP();
+--------------------------+ | CURRENT_RESOURCE_GROUP() | +--------------------------+ | rg2 | +--------------------------+ 1 row in set (0.00 sec)

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