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Monitor a TiDB Cluster across Multiple Kubernetes Clusters

You can monitor a TiDB cluster that is deployed across multiple Kubernetes clusters and access the monitoring data from a global view. This document describes how to integrate with several popular multi-cluster monitoring solutions based on Prometheus, and how to use Grafana to visualize the data across multiple Kubernetes clusters:

Push data from Prometheus

The push method uses the remote write feature of Prometheus, which requests the Prometheus instances in different Kubernetes clusters to push monitoring data to a centralized storage.

The push method described in this section is based on Thanos. If you use other centralized storage solutions compatible with the Prometheus remote API, you only need to replace the related Thanos components.

Prerequisites

The multiple Kubernetes clusters must meet the following condition:

  • The Prometheus (TidbMonitor) component in each Kubernetes cluster has access to the Thanos Receiver component.

For the deployment instructions of Thanos Receiver, refer to kube-thanos and the example.

Architecture

push-thanos-receive.png

Deploy TidbMonitor

  1. According to the Kubernetes cluster that the TiDB cluster is deployed in, set the following environment variables:

    • cluster_name: the TiDB cluster name.
    • cluster_namespace: the TiDB cluster namespace.
    • kubernetes_cluster_name: the custom Kubernetes cluster name, which is used in the externallabels of Prometheus.
    • storageclass_name: the storage of the current Kubernetes cluster.
    • remote_write_url: the host of the thanos-receiver component, or the host of other components compatible with the Prometheus remote write API.
    cluster_name="cluster1"
    cluster_namespace="pingcap"
    kubernetes_cluster_name="kind-cluster-1"
    storageclass_name="local-storage"
    remote_write_url="http://thanos-receiver:19291/api/v1/receive"
    
  2. Create a TidbMonitor component by running the following command:

    cat << EOF | kubectl apply -n ${cluster_namespace} -f -
    apiVersion: pingcap.com/v1alpha1
    kind: TidbMonitor
    metadata:
      name: ${cluster_name}
    spec:
      clusters:
      - name: ${cluster_name}
        namespace: ${cluster_namespace}
      externalLabels:
        # k8s_clsuter indicates the k8s cluster name, you can change
        # the label's name on your own, but you should notice that the
        # "cluster" label has been used by the TiDB metrics already.
        # For more information, please refer to the issue
        # https://github.com/pingcap/tidb-operator/issues/4219.
        k8s_clsuter: ${kubernetes_cluster_name}
        # add other meta labels here
        #region: us-east-1
      initializer:
        baseImage: pingcap/tidb-monitor-initializer
        version: v5.4.0
      persistent: true
      storage: 100Gi
      storageClassName: ${storageclass_name}
      prometheus:
        baseImage: prom/prometheus
        logLevel: info
        remoteWrite:
        - url: ${remote_write_url}
        retentionTime: 2h
        version: v2.27.1
      reloader:
        baseImage: pingcap/tidb-monitor-reloader
        version: v1.0.1
      imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
    EOF
    

Pull data from Prometheus

The pull method pulls monitoring data from Prometheus instances in different Kubernetes clusters and aggregates the data into a global view. This section describes how to pull data using Thanos Query and using Prometheus Federation.

  • Thanos Query
  • Federation

Using Thanos Query

In the example of this section, one Thanos Sidecar is deployed for each Prometheus (TidbMonitor) component. The Thanos query component is used for aggregation queries. If you do not need long-term storage, you can skip the deployment of some components such as thanos-store and S3.

Prerequisites

You need to configure the network and DNS of the Kubernetes clusters so that the Kubernetes clusters meet the following conditions:

  • The Thanos Query component has access to the Pod IP of the Prometheus (TidbMonitor) component in each Kubernetes cluster.
  • The Thanos Query component has access to the Pod FQDN of the Prometheus (TidbMonitor) component in each Kubernetes cluster.

For the deployment instructions of Thanos Query, refer to kube-thanos and the example.

Architecture

pull-thanos-query.png

Deploy TidbMonitor

  1. According to the Kubernetes cluster that the TiDB cluster is deployed in, set the following environment variables:

    • cluster_name: the TiDB cluster name.
    • cluster_namespace: the TiDB cluster namespace.
    • kubernetes_cluster_name: the custom Kubernetes cluster name, which is used in the externallabels of Prometheus.
    • cluster_domain: the current cluster's cluster domain.
    • storageclass_name: the storage of the current Kubernetes cluster.
    cluster_name="cluster1"
    cluster_namespace="pingcap"
    kubernetes_cluster_name="kind-cluster-1"
    storageclass_name="local-storage"
    cluster_domain="svc.local"
    
  2. Create a TidbMonitor component by running the following command:

    cat <<EOF | kubectl apply -n ${cluster_namespace} -f -
    apiVersion: pingcap.com/v1alpha1
    kind: TidbMonitor
    metadata:
      name: ${cluster_name}
    spec:
      clusters:
      - name: ${cluster_name}
        namespace: ${cluster_namespace}
      externalLabels:
        # k8s_clsuter indicates the k8s cluster name, you can change
        # the label's name on your own, but you should notice that the
        # "cluster" label has been used by the TiDB metrics already.
        # For more information, please refer to the issue
        # https://github.com/pingcap/tidb-operator/issues/4219.
        k8s_clsuter: ${kubernetes_cluster_name}
        # add other meta labels here
        #region: us-east-1
      initializer:
        baseImage: pingcap/tidb-monitor-initializer
        version: v5.4.0
      persistent: true
      storage: 20Gi
      storageClassName: ${storageclass_name}
      prometheus:
        baseImage: prom/prometheus
        logLevel: info
        version: v2.27.1
      reloader:
        baseImage: pingcap/tidb-monitor-reloader
        version: v1.0.1
      thanos:
        baseImage: quay.io/thanos/thanos
        version: v0.22.0
        #enable config below if long-term storage is needed.
        #objectStorageConfig:
        #  key: objectstorage.yaml
        #  name: thanos-objectstorage
      imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
    EOF
    
  3. Configure Thanos Query Stores:

    You can specify the store nodes by the static service discovery method. In the Thanos Query command line's starting parameters, add --store=${cluster_name}-prometheus.${cluster_namespace}.svc.${cluster_domain}:10901 to specify the store node. Replace the variables with the actual values.

    If you use other service discovery methods, refer to thanos-service-discovery.

Using Prometheus Federation

In the example of this section, the Federation Prometheus server is used as an entry point for unified storage and query. This method is only considered for small data volumes.

Prerequisites

You need to configure the network and DNS of the Kubernetes clusters so that the Kubernetes clusters meet the following conditions:

  • The Federation Prometheus component has access to the Pod IP of the Prometheus (TidbMonitor) component in each Kubernetes cluster.
  • The Federation Prometheus component has access to the Pod FQDN of the Prometheus (TidbMonitor) component in each Kubernetes cluster.

Architecture

pull-prom-federation.png

Deploy TidbMonitor

  1. According to the Kubernetes cluster that the TiDB cluster is deployed in, set the following environment variables:

    • cluster_name: the TiDB cluster name.
    • cluster_namespace: the TiDB cluster namespace.
    • kubernetes_cluster_name: the custom Kubernetes cluster name, which is used in the externallabels of Prometheus.
    • storageclass_name: the storage of the current Kubernetes cluster.
    cluster_name="cluster1"
    cluster_namespace="pingcap"
    kubernetes_cluster_name="kind-cluster-1"
    storageclass_name="local-storage"
    
  2. Create a TidbMonitor component by running the following command:

    cat << EOF | kubectl apply -n ${cluster_namespace} -f -
    apiVersion: pingcap.com/v1alpha1
    kind: TidbMonitor
    metadata:
      name: ${cluster_name}
    spec:
      clusters:
      - name: ${cluster_name}
        namespace: ${cluster_namespace}
      externalLabels:
        # k8s_clsuter indicates the k8s cluster name, you can change
        # the label's name on your own, but you should notice that the
        # "cluster" label has been used by the TiDB metrics already.
        # For more information, please refer to the issue
        # https://github.com/pingcap/tidb-operator/issues/4219.
        k8s_clsuter: ${kubernetes_cluster_name}
        # add other meta labels here
        #region: us-east-1
      initializer:
        baseImage: pingcap/tidb-monitor-initializer
        version: v5.4.0
      persistent: true
      storage: 20Gi
      storageClassName: ${storageclass_name}
      prometheus:
        baseImage: prom/prometheus
        logLevel: info
        version: v2.27.1
      reloader:
        baseImage: pingcap/tidb-monitor-reloader
        version: v1.0.1
      imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
    EOF
    

Configure Federation Prometheus

For details on Federation, refer to Federation. After the deployment of Prometheus, you need to modify the Prometheus configuration, and add the host information of the Prometheus (TidbMonitor) to be aggregated.

scrape_configs:
  - job_name: 'federate'
    scrape_interval: 15s

    honor_labels: true
    metrics_path: '/federate'

    params:
      'match[]':
        - '{__name__=~".+"}'

    static_configs:
      - targets:
        - 'source-prometheus-1:9090'
        - 'source-prometheus-2:9090'
        - 'source-prometheus-3:9090'

Visualize monitoring data using Grafana

After collecting data using Prometheus, you can visualize multi-cluster monitoring data using Grafana.

  1. Obtain the Grafana dashboard configuration files related to TiDB components by running the following command:

    # set tidb version here
    version=v6.1.0
    docker run --rm -i -v ${PWD}/dashboards:/dashboards/ pingcap/tidb-monitor-initializer:${version} && \
    cd dashboards
    

    After running the command above, you can view all the dashboard JSON files in the current directory.

  2. Refer to the Grafana documentation to configure the Prometheus data source.

    To keep the configuration consistent with the dashboard JSON files obtained in the previous step, you need to set the Name field of the data source to tidb-cluster. If you want to use the existing data source, run the following command to replace the data source name in the dashboard JSON files. In the command, $DS_NAME is the name of the data source.

    # define your datasource name here.
    DS_NAME=thanos
    sed -i 's/"datasource": "tidb-cluster"/"datasource": "$DS_NAME"/g' *.json
    
  3. Refer to the Grafana documentation to import dashboards into Grafana.

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