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CREATE INDEX

This statement adds a new index to an existing table. It is an alternative syntax to ALTER TABLE .. ADD INDEX, and included for MySQL compatibility.

Synopsis

CreateIndexStmt
CREATEIndexKeyTypeOptINDEXIfNotExistsIdentifierIndexTypeOptONTableName(IndexPartSpecificationList)IndexOptionListIndexLockAndAlgorithmOpt
IndexKeyTypeOpt
UNIQUESPATIALFULLTEXT
IfNotExists
IFNOTEXISTS
IndexTypeOpt
IndexType
IndexPartSpecificationList
IndexPartSpecification,
IndexOptionList
IndexOption
IndexLockAndAlgorithmOpt
LockClauseAlgorithmClauseAlgorithmClauseLockClause
IndexType
USINGTYPEIndexTypeName
IndexPartSpecification
ColumnNameOptFieldLen(Expression)Order
IndexOption
KEY_BLOCK_SIZE=LengthNumIndexTypeWITHPARSERIdentifierCOMMENTstringLitIndexInvisible
IndexTypeName
BTREEHASHRTREE
ColumnName
Identifier.Identifier.Identifier
OptFieldLen
FieldLen
IndexNameList
IdentifierPRIMARY,IdentifierPRIMARY
KeyOrIndex
KeyIndex

Examples

mysql> CREATE TABLE t1 (id INT NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY AUTO_INCREMENT, c1 INT NOT NULL);
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.10 sec)

mysql> INSERT INTO t1 (c1) VALUES (1),(2),(3),(4),(5);
Query OK, 5 rows affected (0.02 sec)
Records: 5  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql> EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE c1 = 3;
+-------------------------+----------+-----------+---------------+--------------------------------+
| id                      | estRows  | task      | access object | operator info                  |
+-------------------------+----------+-----------+---------------+--------------------------------+
| TableReader_7           | 10.00    | root      |               | data:Selection_6               |
| └─Selection_6           | 10.00    | cop[tikv] |               | eq(test.t1.c1, 3)              |
|   └─TableFullScan_5     | 10000.00 | cop[tikv] | table:t1      | keep order:false, stats:pseudo |
+-------------------------+----------+-----------+---------------+--------------------------------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> CREATE INDEX c1 ON t1 (c1);
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.30 sec)

mysql> EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE c1 = 3;
+------------------------+---------+-----------+------------------------+---------------------------------------------+
| id                     | estRows | task      | access object          | operator info                               |
+------------------------+---------+-----------+------------------------+---------------------------------------------+
| IndexReader_6          | 10.00   | root      |                        | index:IndexRangeScan_5                      |
| └─IndexRangeScan_5     | 10.00   | cop[tikv] | table:t1, index:c1(c1) | range:[3,3], keep order:false, stats:pseudo |
+------------------------+---------+-----------+------------------------+---------------------------------------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> ALTER TABLE t1 DROP INDEX c1;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.30 sec)

mysql> CREATE UNIQUE INDEX c1 ON t1 (c1);
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.31 sec)

Expression index

Note:

Expression index is still an experimental feature. It is NOT recommended that you use it in the production environment.

To use this feature, make the following setting in TiDB Configuration File:

allow-expression-index = true

TiDB can build indexes not only on one or more columns in a table, but also on an expression. When queries involve expressions, expression indexes can speed up those queries.

Take the following query as an example:

SELECT * FROM t WHERE lower(name) = "pingcap";

If the following expression index is built, you can use the index to speed up the above query:

CREATE INDEX idx ON t ((lower(name)));

The cost of maintaining an expression index is higher than that of maintaining other indexes, because the value of the expression needs to be calculated whenever a row is inserted or updated. The value of the expression is already stored in the index, so this value does not require recalculation when the optimizer selects the expression index.

Therefore, when the query performance outweighs the insert and update performance, you can consider indexing the expressions.

Expression indexes have the same syntax and limitations as in MySQL. They are implemented by building indexes on generated virtual columns that are invisible, so the supported expressions inherit all limitations of virtual generated columns.

Currently, the optimizer can use the indexed expressions when the expressions are only in the FIELD clause, WHERE clause, and ORDER BY clause. The GROUP BY clause will be supported in future updates.

Invisible index

Invisible indexes are indexes that are ignored by the query optimizer:

CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 INT, c2 INT, UNIQUE(c2));
CREATE UNIQUE INDEX c1 ON t1 (c1) INVISIBLE;

For details, see ALTER INDEX.

Associated session variables

The global variables associated with the CREATE INDEX statement are tidb_ddl_reorg_worker_cnt, tidb_ddl_reorg_batch_size and tidb_ddl_reorg_priority. Refer to system variables for details.

MySQL compatibility

  • FULLTEXT, HASH and SPATIAL indexes are not supported.
  • Descending indexes are not supported (similar to MySQL 5.7).
  • Adding the primary key of the CLUSTERED type to a table is not supported. For more details about the primary key of the CLUSTERED type, refer to clustered index.

See also