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Enable Admission Controller in TiDB Operator

Kubernetes v1.9 introduces the dynamic admission control to modify and validate resources. TiDB Operator also supports the dynamic admission control to modify, validate, and maintain resources. This document describes how to enable the admission controller and introduces the functionality of the admission controller.

Prerequisites

Unlike those of most products on Kubernetes, the admission controller of TiDB Operator consists of two mechanisms: extension API-server and Webhook Configuration.

To use the admission controller, you need to enable the aggregation layer feature of the Kubernetes cluster. The feature is enabled by default. To check whether it is enabled, see Enable Kubernetes Apiserver flags.

Enable the admission controller

With a default installation, TiDB Operator disables the admission controller. Take the following steps to manually turn it on.

  1. Edit the values.yaml file in TiDB Operator.

    Enable the Operator Webhook feature:

    admissionWebhook:
      create: true
    • If your Kubernetes cluster version >= v1.13.0, enable the Webhook feature by using the configuration above.

    • If your Kubernetes cluster version < v1.13.0, run the following command and configure the admissionWebhook.cabundle in values.yaml as the return value:

      kubectl get configmap -n kube-system extension-apiserver-authentication -o=jsonpath='{.data.client-ca-file}' | base64 | tr -d '\n'
      admissionWebhook:
        # Configure the value of `admissionWebhook.cabundle` as the return value of the command above
        cabundle: <cabundle>
  2. Configure the failure policy.

    Prior to Kubernetes v1.15, the management mechanism of the dynamic admission control is coarser-grained and is inconvenient to use. To prevent the impact of the dynamic admission control on the global cluster, you need to configure the Failure Policy.

    • For Kubernetes versions earlier than v1.15, it is recommended to set the failurePolicy of TiDB Operator to Ignore. This avoids the influence on the global cluster in case of admission webhook exception in TiDB Operator.

      ......
      failurePolicy:
          validation: Ignore
          mutation: Ignore
    • For Kubernetes v1.15 and later versions, it is recommended to set the failurePolicy of TiDB Operator to Failure. The exception occurs in admission webhook does not affect the whole cluster, because the dynamic admission control supports the label-based filtering mechanism.

      ......
      failurePolicy:
          validation: Fail
          mutation: Fail
  3. Install or update TiDB Operator.

    To install or update TiDB Operator, see Deploy TiDB Operator in Kubernetes.

Set the TLS certificate for the admission controller

By default, the admission controller and Kubernetes api-server skip the TLS verification. To manually enable and configure the TLS verification between the admission controller and Kubernetes api-server, take the following steps:

  1. Generate the custom certificate.

    To generate the custom CA (client auth) file, refer to Step 1 to Step 4 in Generate certificates using cfssl.

    Use the following configuration in ca-config.json:

    {
        "signing": {
            "default": {
                "expiry": "8760h"
            },
            "profiles": {
                "server": {
                    "expiry": "8760h",
                    "usages": [
                        "signing",
                        "key encipherment",
                        "server auth"
                    ]
                }
            }
        }
    }

    After executing Step 4, run the ls command. The following files should be listed in the cfssl folder:

    ca-config.json    ca-csr.json    ca-key.pem    ca.csr    ca.pem
  2. Generate the certificate for the admission controller.

    1. Create the default webhook-server.json file:

      cfssl print-defaults csr > webhook-server.json
    2. Modify the webhook-server.json file as follows:

      {
          "CN": "TiDB Operator Webhook",
          "hosts": [
              "tidb-admission-webhook.<namespace>",
              "tidb-admission-webhook.<namespace>.svc",
              "tidb-admission-webhook.<namespace>.svc.cluster",
              "tidb-admission-webhook.<namespace>.svc.cluster.local"
          ],
          "key": {
              "algo": "rsa",
              "size": 2048
          },
          "names": [
              {
                  "C": "US",
                  "L": "CA",
                  "O": "PingCAP",
                  "ST": "Beijing",
                  "OU": "TiDB"
              }
          ]
      }

      <namespace> is the namespace which TiDB Operator is deployed in.

    3. Generate the server-side certificate for TiDB Operator Webhook:

      cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=server webhook-server.json | cfssljson -bare webhook-server
    4. Run the ls | grep webhook-server command. The following files should be listed:

      webhook-server-key.pem
      webhook-server.csr
      webhook-server.json
      webhook-server.pem
  3. Create a secret in the Kubernetes cluster:

    kubectl create secret generic <secret-name> --namespace=<namespace> --from-file=tls.crt=~/cfssl/webhook-server.pem --from-file=tls.key=~/cfssl/webhook-server-key.pem --from-file=ca.crt=~/cfssl/ca.pem
  4. Modify values.yaml, and install or upgrade TiDB Operator.

    Get the value of ca.crt:

    kubectl get secret <secret-name> --namespace=<release-namespace> -o=jsonpath='{.data.ca\.crt}'

    Configure the items in values.yaml as described below:

    admissionWebhook:
      apiservice:
        insecureSkipTLSVerify: false # Enable TLS verification
        tlsSecret: "<secret-name>" # The name of the secret created in Step 3
        caBundle: "<caBundle>" # The value of `ca.crt` obtained in the above step

    After configuring the items, install or upgrade TiDB Operator. For installation, see Deploy TiDB Operator. For upgrade, see Upgrade TiDB Operator.

Functionality of the admission controller

TiDB Operator implements many functions using the admission controller. This section introduces the admission controller for each resource and its corresponding functions.

  • Admission controller for Pod validation

    The admission controller for Pod validation guarantees the safe logon and safe logoff of the PD/TiKV/TiDB component. You can restart a TiDB cluster in Kubernetes using this controller. The component is enabled by default if the admission controller is enabled.

    admissionWebhook:
      validation:
        pods: true
  • Admission controller for StatefulSet validation

    The admission controller for StatefulSet validation supports the gated launch of the TiDB/TiKV component in a TiDB cluster. The component is disabled by default if the admission controller is enabled.

    admissionWebhook:
      validation:
        statefulSets: false

    You can control the gated launch of the TiDB/TiKV component in a TiDB cluster through two annotations, tidb.pingcap.com/tikv-partition and tidb.pingcap.com/tidb-partition. To set the gated launch of the TiKV component in a TiDB cluster, execute the following commands. The effect of partition=2 is the same as that of StatefulSet Partitions.

    kubectl annotate tidbcluster ${name} -n ${namespace} tidb.pingcap.com/tikv-partition=2 &&
    tidbcluster.pingcap.com/${name} annotated

    Execute the following commands to unset the gated launch:

    kubectl annotate tidbcluster ${name} -n ${namespace} tidb.pingcap.com/tikv-partition- &&
    tidbcluster.pingcap.com/${name} annotated

    This also applies to the TiDB component.

  • Admission controller for TiDB Operator resources validation

    The admission controller for TiDB Operator resources validation supports validating customized resources such as TidbCluster and TidbMonitor in TiDB Operator. The component is disabled by default if the admission controller is enabled.

    admissionWebhook:
      validation:
        pingcapResources: false

    For example, regarding TidbCluster resources, the admission controller for TiDB Operator resources validation checks the required fields of the spec field. When you create or update TidbCluster, if the check is not passed (for example, neither of the spec.pd.image filed and the spec.pd.baseImage field is defined), this admission controller refuses the request.

  • Admission controller for Pod modification

    The admission controller for Pod modification supports the hotspot scheduling of TiKV in the auto-scaling scenario. To enable TidbCluster auto-scaling, you need to enable this controller. The component is enabled by default if the admission controller is enabled.

    admissionWebhook:
      mutation:
        pods: true
  • Admission controller for TiDB Operator resources modification

    The admission controller for TiDB Operator resources modification supports filling in the default values of customized resources, such as TidbCluster and TidbMonitor in TiDB Operator. The component is enabled by default if the admission controller is enabled.

    admissionWebhook:
      mutation:
        pingcapResources: true