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用 EXPLAIN 查看使用子查询的执行计划

TiDB 会执行多种子查询相关的优化,以提升子查询的执行性能。本文档介绍一些常见子查询的优化方式,以及如何解读 EXPLAIN 语句返回的执行计划信息。

本文档所使用的示例表数据如下:

CREATE TABLE t1 (id BIGINT NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY auto_increment, pad1 BLOB, pad2 BLOB, pad3 BLOB, int_col INT NOT NULL DEFAULT 0);
CREATE TABLE t2 (id BIGINT NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY auto_increment, t1_id BIGINT NOT NULL, pad1 BLOB, pad2 BLOB, pad3 BLOB, INDEX(t1_id));
CREATE TABLE t3 (
 id INT NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY auto_increment,
 t1_id INT NOT NULL,
 UNIQUE (t1_id)
);

INSERT INTO t1 SELECT NULL, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), 0 FROM dual;
INSERT INTO t1 SELECT NULL, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), 0 FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t1 SELECT NULL, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), 0 FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t1 SELECT NULL, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), 0 FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t1 SELECT NULL, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), 0 FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t1 SELECT NULL, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), 0 FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t1 SELECT NULL, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), 0 FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t1 SELECT NULL, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), 0 FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t1 SELECT NULL, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), 0 FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t1 SELECT NULL, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), 0 FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t1 SELECT NULL, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), 0 FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t2 SELECT NULL, a.id, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024) FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t2 SELECT NULL, a.id, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024) FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t2 SELECT NULL, a.id, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024) FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t2 SELECT NULL, a.id, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024) FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t2 SELECT NULL, a.id, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024) FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t2 SELECT NULL, a.id, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024) FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t2 SELECT NULL, a.id, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024) FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t2 SELECT NULL, a.id, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024) FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t2 SELECT NULL, a.id, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024) FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
UPDATE t1 SET int_col = 1 WHERE pad1 = (SELECT pad1 FROM t1 ORDER BY RAND() LIMIT 1);
INSERT INTO t3 SELECT NULL, id FROM t1 WHERE id < 1000;

SELECT SLEEP(1);
ANALYZE TABLE t1, t2, t3;

Inner join(无 UNIQUE 约束的子查询)

以下示例中,IN 子查询会从表 t2 中搜索一列 ID。为保证语义正确性,TiDB 需要保证 t1_id 列的值具有唯一性。使用 EXPLAIN 可查看到该查询的执行计划去掉重复项并执行 Inner Join 内连接操作:

EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE id IN (SELECT t1_id FROM t2);
+--------------------------------+----------+-----------+------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| id                             | estRows  | task      | access object                | operator info                                                                   |
+--------------------------------+----------+-----------+------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| IndexMergeJoin_19              | 45.00    | root      |                              | inner join, inner:TableReader_14, outer key:test.t2.t1_id, inner key:test.t1.id |
| ├─HashAgg_38(Build)            | 45.00    | root      |                              | group by:test.t2.t1_id, funcs:firstrow(test.t2.t1_id)->test.t2.t1_id            |
| │ └─IndexReader_39             | 45.00    | root      |                              | index:HashAgg_31                                                                |
| │   └─HashAgg_31               | 45.00    | cop[tikv] |                              | group by:test.t2.t1_id,                                                         |
| │     └─IndexFullScan_37       | 90000.00 | cop[tikv] | table:t2, index:t1_id(t1_id) | keep order:false                                                                |
| └─TableReader_14(Probe)        | 1.00     | root      |                              | data:TableRangeScan_13                                                          |
|   └─TableRangeScan_13          | 1.00     | cop[tikv] | table:t1                     | range: decided by [test.t2.t1_id], keep order:true                              |
+--------------------------------+----------+-----------+------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
7 rows in set (0.00 sec)

由上述查询结果可知,TiDB 首先执行 Index Join 索引连接(即 Merge Join 合并连接的变体)操作,开始读取 t2.t1_id 列的索引。先是 └─HashAgg_31 算子的部分任务在 TiKV 中对 t1_id 值进行去重,然后├─HashAgg_38(Build) 算子的部分任务在 TiDB 中对 t1_id 值再次进行去重。去重操作由聚合函数 firstrow(test.t2.t1_id) 执行,之后会将操作结果与 t1 表的主键相连接。

Inner join(有 UNIQUE 约束的子查询)

在上述示例中,为了确保 t1_id 值在与表 t1 连接前具有唯一性,需要执行聚合运算。在以下示例中,由于 UNIQUE 约束已能确保 t3.t1_id 列值的唯一:

EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE id IN (SELECT t1_id FROM t3);
+-----------------------------+---------+-----------+------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| id                          | estRows | task      | access object                | operator info                                                                   |
+-----------------------------+---------+-----------+------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| IndexMergeJoin_20           | 999.00  | root      |                              | inner join, inner:TableReader_15, outer key:test.t3.t1_id, inner key:test.t1.id |
| ├─IndexReader_39(Build)     | 999.00  | root      |                              | index:IndexFullScan_38                                                          |
| │ └─IndexFullScan_38        | 999.00  | cop[tikv] | table:t3, index:t1_id(t1_id) | keep order:false                                                                |
| └─TableReader_15(Probe)     | 1.00    | root      |                              | data:TableRangeScan_14                                                          |
|   └─TableRangeScan_14       | 1.00    | cop[tikv] | table:t1                     | range: decided by [test.t3.t1_id], keep order:true                              |
+-----------------------------+---------+-----------+------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
5 rows in set (0.00 sec)

从语义上看,因为约束保证了 t3.t1_id 列值的唯一性,TiDB 可以直接执行 INNER JOIN 查询。

Semi Join(关联查询)

在前两个示例中,通过 HashAgg 聚合操作或通过 UNIQUE 约束保证子查询数据的唯一性之后,TiDB 才能够执行 Inner Join 操作。这两种连接均使用了 Index JoinMerge Join 的变体)。

下面的例子中,TiDB 优化器则选择了一种不同的执行计划:

EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE id IN (SELECT t1_id FROM t2 WHERE t1_id != t1.int_col);
+-----------------------------+-----------+-----------+------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| id                          | estRows   | task      | access object                | operator info                                                                                          |
+-----------------------------+-----------+-----------+------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| MergeJoin_9                 | 45446.40  | root      |                              | semi join, left key:test.t1.id, right key:test.t2.t1_id, other cond:ne(test.t2.t1_id, test.t1.int_col) |
| ├─IndexReader_24(Build)     | 180000.00 | root      |                              | index:IndexFullScan_23                                                                                 |
| │ └─IndexFullScan_23        | 180000.00 | cop[tikv] | table:t2, index:t1_id(t1_id) | keep order:true                                                                                        |
| └─TableReader_22(Probe)     | 56808.00  | root      |                              | data:Selection_21                                                                                      |
|   └─Selection_21            | 56808.00  | cop[tikv] |                              | ne(test.t1.id, test.t1.int_col)                                                                        |
|     └─TableFullScan_20      | 71010.00  | cop[tikv] | table:t1                     | keep order:true                                                                                        |
+-----------------------------+-----------+-----------+------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
6 rows in set (0.00 sec)

由上述查询结果可知,TiDB 执行了 Semi Join。不同于 Inner JoinSemi Join 仅允许右键 (t2.t1_id) 上的第一个值,也就是该操作将去除 Join 算子任务中的重复数据。Join 算法也包含 Merge Join,会按照排序顺序同时从左侧和右侧读取数据,这是一种高效的 Zipper Merge

可以将原语句视为关联子查询,因为它引入了子查询外的 t1.int_col 列。然而,EXPLAIN 语句的返回结果显示的是关联子查询去关联后的执行计划。条件 t1_id != t1.int_col 会被重写为 t1.id != t1.int_col。TiDB 可以从表 t1 中读取数据并且在 └─Selection_21 中执行此操作,因此这种去关联和重写操作会极大提高执行效率。

Anti Semi Join (NOT IN 子查询)

在以下示例中,除非子查询中存在 t3.t1_id,否则该查询将(从语义上)返回表 t3 中的所有行:

EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM t3 WHERE t1_id NOT IN (SELECT id FROM t1 WHERE int_col < 100);
+-----------------------------+---------+-----------+---------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| id                          | estRows | task      | access object | operator info                                                                       |
+-----------------------------+---------+-----------+---------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| IndexMergeJoin_20           | 1598.40 | root      |               | anti semi join, inner:TableReader_15, outer key:test.t3.t1_id, inner key:test.t1.id |
| ├─TableReader_28(Build)     | 1998.00 | root      |               | data:TableFullScan_27                                                               |
| │ └─TableFullScan_27        | 1998.00 | cop[tikv] | table:t3      | keep order:false                                                                    |
| └─TableReader_15(Probe)     | 1.00    | root      |               | data:Selection_14                                                                   |
|   └─Selection_14            | 1.00    | cop[tikv] |               | lt(test.t1.int_col, 100)                                                            |
|     └─TableRangeScan_13     | 1.00    | cop[tikv] | table:t1      | range: decided by [test.t3.t1_id], keep order:true                                  |
+-----------------------------+---------+-----------+---------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
6 rows in set (0.00 sec)

上述查询首先读取了表 t3,然后根据主键开始探测 (probe) 表 t1。连接类型是 anti semi join,即反半连接:之所以使用 anti,是因为上述示例有不存在匹配值(即 NOT IN)的情况;使用 Semi Join 则是因为仅需要匹配第一行后就可以停止查询。