文档目录

用 EXPLAIN 查看使用索引的 SQL 执行计划

TiDB 支持以下使用索引的算子来提升查询速度:

本文档中的示例都基于以下数据:

CREATE TABLE t1 (
 id INT NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY auto_increment,
 intkey INT NOT NULL,
 pad1 VARBINARY(1024),
 INDEX (intkey)
);

INSERT INTO t1 SELECT NULL, FLOOR(RAND()*1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024) FROM dual;
INSERT INTO t1 SELECT NULL, FLOOR(RAND()*1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024) FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t1 SELECT NULL, FLOOR(RAND()*1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024) FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t1 SELECT NULL, FLOOR(RAND()*1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024) FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;

IndexLookup

TiDB 从二级索引检索数据时会使用 IndexLookup 算子。例如,以下所有查询均会在 intkey 列的索引上使用 IndexLookup 算子:

EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE intkey = 123;
EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE intkey < 10;
EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE intkey BETWEEN 300 AND 310;
EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE intkey BETWEEN 300 AND 310;
EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE intkey IN (123,29,98);
EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE intkey >= 99 AND intkey <= 103;
+-------------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+-----------------------------------+
| id                            | estRows | task      | access object                  | operator info                     |
+-------------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+-----------------------------------+
| IndexLookUp_10                | 1.00    | root      |                                |                                   |
| ├─IndexRangeScan_8(Build)     | 1.00    | cop[tikv] | table:t1, index:intkey(intkey) | range:[123,123], keep order:false |
| └─TableRowIDScan_9(Probe)     | 1.00    | cop[tikv] | table:t1                       | keep order:false                  |
+-------------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+-----------------------------------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

+-------------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+-----------------------------------+
| id                            | estRows | task      | access object                  | operator info                     |
+-------------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+-----------------------------------+
| IndexLookUp_10                | 3.60    | root      |                                |                                   |
| ├─IndexRangeScan_8(Build)     | 3.60    | cop[tikv] | table:t1, index:intkey(intkey) | range:[-inf,10), keep order:false |
| └─TableRowIDScan_9(Probe)     | 3.60    | cop[tikv] | table:t1                       | keep order:false                  |
+-------------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+-----------------------------------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

+-------------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+-----------------------------------+
| id                            | estRows | task      | access object                  | operator info                     |
+-------------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+-----------------------------------+
| IndexLookUp_10                | 5.67    | root      |                                |                                   |
| ├─IndexRangeScan_8(Build)     | 5.67    | cop[tikv] | table:t1, index:intkey(intkey) | range:[300,310], keep order:false |
| └─TableRowIDScan_9(Probe)     | 5.67    | cop[tikv] | table:t1                       | keep order:false                  |
+-------------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+-----------------------------------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

+-------------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+-----------------------------------+
| id                            | estRows | task      | access object                  | operator info                     |
+-------------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+-----------------------------------+
| IndexLookUp_10                | 5.67    | root      |                                |                                   |
| ├─IndexRangeScan_8(Build)     | 5.67    | cop[tikv] | table:t1, index:intkey(intkey) | range:[300,310], keep order:false |
| └─TableRowIDScan_9(Probe)     | 5.67    | cop[tikv] | table:t1                       | keep order:false                  |
+-------------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+-----------------------------------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

+-------------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
| id                            | estRows | task      | access object                  | operator info                                       |
+-------------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
| IndexLookUp_10                | 4.00    | root      |                                |                                                     |
| ├─IndexRangeScan_8(Build)     | 4.00    | cop[tikv] | table:t1, index:intkey(intkey) | range:[29,29], [98,98], [123,123], keep order:false |
| └─TableRowIDScan_9(Probe)     | 4.00    | cop[tikv] | table:t1                       | keep order:false                                    |
+-------------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

+-------------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+
| id                            | estRows | task      | access object                  | operator info                    |
+-------------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+
| IndexLookUp_10                | 6.00    | root      |                                |                                  |
| ├─IndexRangeScan_8(Build)     | 6.00    | cop[tikv] | table:t1, index:intkey(intkey) | range:[99,103], keep order:false |
| └─TableRowIDScan_9(Probe)     | 6.00    | cop[tikv] | table:t1                       | keep order:false                 |
+-------------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

IndexLookup 算子有以下两个子节点:

  • ├─IndexRangeScan_8(Build) 算子节点对 intkey 列的索引执行范围扫描,并检索内部的 RowID 值(对此表而言,即为主键)。
  • └─TableRowIDScan_9(Probe) 算子节点随后从表数据中检索整行。

IndexLookup 任务分以上两步执行。如果满足条件的行较多,SQL 优化器可能会根据统计信息选择使用 TableFullScan 算子。在以下示例中,很多行都满足 intkey > 100 这一条件,因此优化器选择了 TableFullScan

EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE intkey > 100;
+-------------------------+---------+-----------+---------------+-------------------------+
| id                      | estRows | task      | access object | operator info           |
+-------------------------+---------+-----------+---------------+-------------------------+
| TableReader_7           | 898.50  | root      |               | data:Selection_6        |
| └─Selection_6           | 898.50  | cop[tikv] |               | gt(test.t1.intkey, 100) |
|   └─TableFullScan_5     | 1010.00 | cop[tikv] | table:t1      | keep order:false        |
+-------------------------+---------+-----------+---------------+-------------------------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

IndexLookup 算子能在带索引的列上有效优化 LIMIT

EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM t1 ORDER BY intkey DESC LIMIT 10;
+--------------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+------------------------------------+
| id                             | estRows | task      | access object                  | operator info                      |
+--------------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+------------------------------------+
| IndexLookUp_21                 | 10.00   | root      |                                | limit embedded(offset:0, count:10) |
| ├─Limit_20(Build)              | 10.00   | cop[tikv] |                                | offset:0, count:10                 |
| │ └─IndexFullScan_18           | 10.00   | cop[tikv] | table:t1, index:intkey(intkey) | keep order:true, desc              |
| └─TableRowIDScan_19(Probe)     | 10.00   | cop[tikv] | table:t1                       | keep order:false, stats:pseudo     |
+--------------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+------------------------------------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

以上示例中,TiDB 从 intkey 索引读取最后 20 行,然后从表数据中检索这些行的 RowID 值。

IndexReader

TiDB 支持覆盖索引优化 (covering index optimization)。如果 TiDB 能从索引中检索出所有行,就会跳过 IndexLookup 任务中通常所需的第二步(即从表数据中检索整行)。示例如下:

EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE intkey = 123;
EXPLAIN SELECT id FROM t1 WHERE intkey = 123;
+-------------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+-----------------------------------+
| id                            | estRows | task      | access object                  | operator info                     |
+-------------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+-----------------------------------+
| IndexLookUp_10                | 1.00    | root      |                                |                                   |
| ├─IndexRangeScan_8(Build)     | 1.00    | cop[tikv] | table:t1, index:intkey(intkey) | range:[123,123], keep order:false |
| └─TableRowIDScan_9(Probe)     | 1.00    | cop[tikv] | table:t1                       | keep order:false                  |
+-------------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+-----------------------------------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

+--------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+-----------------------------------+
| id                       | estRows | task      | access object                  | operator info                     |
+--------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+-----------------------------------+
| Projection_4             | 1.00    | root      |                                | test.t1.id                        |
| └─IndexReader_6          | 1.00    | root      |                                | index:IndexRangeScan_5            |
|   └─IndexRangeScan_5     | 1.00    | cop[tikv] | table:t1, index:intkey(intkey) | range:[123,123], keep order:false |
+--------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+-----------------------------------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

以上结果中,id 也是内部的 RowID 值,因此 id 也存储在 intkey 索引中。部分 └─IndexRangeScan_5 任务使用 intkey 索引后,可直接返回 RowID 值。

Point_Get 和 Batch_Point_Get

TiDB 直接从主键或唯一键检索数据时会使用 Point_GetBatch_Point_Get 算子。这两个算子比 IndexLookup 更有效率。示例如下:

EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE id = 1234;
EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE id IN (1234,123);

ALTER TABLE t1 ADD unique_key INT;
UPDATE t1 SET unique_key = id;
ALTER TABLE t1 ADD UNIQUE KEY (unique_key);

EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE unique_key = 1234;
EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE unique_key IN (1234, 123);
+-------------+---------+------+---------------+---------------+
| id          | estRows | task | access object | operator info |
+-------------+---------+------+---------------+---------------+
| Point_Get_1 | 1.00    | root | table:t1      | handle:1234   |
+-------------+---------+------+---------------+---------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

+-------------------+---------+------+---------------+-------------------------------------------------+
| id                | estRows | task | access object | operator info                                   |
+-------------------+---------+------+---------------+-------------------------------------------------+
| Batch_Point_Get_1 | 2.00    | root | table:t1      | handle:[1234 123], keep order:false, desc:false |
+-------------------+---------+------+---------------+-------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.27 sec)

Query OK, 1010 rows affected (0.06 sec)
Rows matched: 1010  Changed: 1010  Warnings: 0

Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.37 sec)

+-------------+---------+------+----------------------------------------+---------------+
| id          | estRows | task | access object                          | operator info |
+-------------+---------+------+----------------------------------------+---------------+
| Point_Get_1 | 1.00    | root | table:t1, index:unique_key(unique_key) |               |
+-------------+---------+------+----------------------------------------+---------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

+-------------------+---------+------+----------------------------------------+------------------------------+
| id                | estRows | task | access object                          | operator info                |
+-------------------+---------+------+----------------------------------------+------------------------------+
| Batch_Point_Get_1 | 2.00    | root | table:t1, index:unique_key(unique_key) | keep order:false, desc:false |
+-------------------+---------+------+----------------------------------------+------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

IndexFullScan

索引是有序的,所以优化器可以使用 IndexFullScan 算子来优化常见的查询,例如在索引值上使用 MINMax 函数:

EXPLAIN SELECT MIN(intkey) FROM t1;
EXPLAIN SELECT MAX(intkey) FROM t1;
+------------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+-------------------------------------+
| id                           | estRows | task      | access object                  | operator info                       |
+------------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+-------------------------------------+
| StreamAgg_12                 | 1.00    | root      |                                | funcs:min(test.t1.intkey)->Column#4 |
| └─Limit_16                   | 1.00    | root      |                                | offset:0, count:1                   |
|   └─IndexReader_29           | 1.00    | root      |                                | index:Limit_28                      |
|     └─Limit_28               | 1.00    | cop[tikv] |                                | offset:0, count:1                   |
|       └─IndexFullScan_27     | 1.00    | cop[tikv] | table:t1, index:intkey(intkey) | keep order:true                     |
+------------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+-------------------------------------+
5 rows in set (0.00 sec)

+------------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+-------------------------------------+
| id                           | estRows | task      | access object                  | operator info                       |
+------------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+-------------------------------------+
| StreamAgg_12                 | 1.00    | root      |                                | funcs:max(test.t1.intkey)->Column#4 |
| └─Limit_16                   | 1.00    | root      |                                | offset:0, count:1                   |
|   └─IndexReader_29           | 1.00    | root      |                                | index:Limit_28                      |
|     └─Limit_28               | 1.00    | cop[tikv] |                                | offset:0, count:1                   |
|       └─IndexFullScan_27     | 1.00    | cop[tikv] | table:t1, index:intkey(intkey) | keep order:true, desc               |
+------------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+-------------------------------------+
5 rows in set (0.00 sec)

以上语句的执行过程中,TiDB 在每一个 TiKV Region 上执行 IndexFullScan 操作。虽然算子名为 FullScan 即全扫描,TiDB 只读取第一行 (└─Limit_28)。每个 TiKV Region 返回各自的 MINMAX 值给 TiDB,TiDB 再执行流聚合运算来过滤出一行数据。即使表为空,带 MAXMIN 函数的流聚合运算也能保证返回 NULL 值。

相反,在没有索引的值上执行 MIN 函数会在每一个 TiKV Region 上执行 TableFullScan 操作。该查询会要求在 TiKV 中扫描所有行,但 TopN 计算可保证每个 TiKV Region 只返回一行数据给 TiDB。尽管 TopN 能减少 TiDB 和 TiKV 之间的多余数据传输,但该查询的效率仍远不及以上示例(MIN 能够使用索引)。

EXPLAIN SELECT MIN(pad1) FROM t1;
+--------------------------------+---------+-----------+---------------+-----------------------------------+
| id                             | estRows | task      | access object | operator info                     |
+--------------------------------+---------+-----------+---------------+-----------------------------------+
| StreamAgg_13                   | 1.00    | root      |               | funcs:min(test.t1.pad1)->Column#4 |
| └─TopN_14                      | 1.00    | root      |               | test.t1.pad1, offset:0, count:1   |
|   └─TableReader_23             | 1.00    | root      |               | data:TopN_22                      |
|     └─TopN_22                  | 1.00    | cop[tikv] |               | test.t1.pad1, offset:0, count:1   |
|       └─Selection_21           | 1008.99 | cop[tikv] |               | not(isnull(test.t1.pad1))         |
|         └─TableFullScan_20     | 1010.00 | cop[tikv] | table:t1      | keep order:false                  |
+--------------------------------+---------+-----------+---------------+-----------------------------------+
6 rows in set (0.00 sec)

执行以下语句时,TiDB 将使用 IndexFullScan 算子扫描索引中的每一行:

EXPLAIN SELECT SUM(intkey) FROM t1;
EXPLAIN SELECT AVG(intkey) FROM t1;
+----------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+-------------------------------------+
| id                         | estRows | task      | access object                  | operator info                       |
+----------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+-------------------------------------+
| StreamAgg_20               | 1.00    | root      |                                | funcs:sum(Column#6)->Column#4       |
| └─IndexReader_21           | 1.00    | root      |                                | index:StreamAgg_8                   |
|   └─StreamAgg_8            | 1.00    | cop[tikv] |                                | funcs:sum(test.t1.intkey)->Column#6 |
|     └─IndexFullScan_19     | 1010.00 | cop[tikv] | table:t1, index:intkey(intkey) | keep order:false                    |
+----------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+-------------------------------------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

+----------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| id                         | estRows | task      | access object                  | operator info                                                              |
+----------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| StreamAgg_20               | 1.00    | root      |                                | funcs:avg(Column#7, Column#8)->Column#4                                    |
| └─IndexReader_21           | 1.00    | root      |                                | index:StreamAgg_8                                                          |
|   └─StreamAgg_8            | 1.00    | cop[tikv] |                                | funcs:count(test.t1.intkey)->Column#7, funcs:sum(test.t1.intkey)->Column#8 |
|     └─IndexFullScan_19     | 1010.00 | cop[tikv] | table:t1, index:intkey(intkey) | keep order:false                                                           |
+----------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

以上示例中,IndexFullScanTableFullScan 更有效率,因为 (intkey + RowID) 索引中值的长度小于整行的长度。

以下语句不支持使用 IndexFullScan 算子,因为涉及该表中的其他列:

EXPLAIN SELECT AVG(intkey), ANY_VALUE(pad1) FROM t1;
+------------------------------+---------+-----------+---------------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| id                           | estRows | task      | access object | operator info                                                                                                         |
+------------------------------+---------+-----------+---------------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Projection_4                 | 1.00    | root      |               | Column#4, any_value(test.t1.pad1)->Column#5                                                                           |
| └─StreamAgg_16               | 1.00    | root      |               | funcs:avg(Column#10, Column#11)->Column#4, funcs:firstrow(Column#12)->test.t1.pad1                                    |
|   └─TableReader_17           | 1.00    | root      |               | data:StreamAgg_8                                                                                                      |
|     └─StreamAgg_8            | 1.00    | cop[tikv] |               | funcs:count(test.t1.intkey)->Column#10, funcs:sum(test.t1.intkey)->Column#11, funcs:firstrow(test.t1.pad1)->Column#12 |
|       └─TableFullScan_15     | 1010.00 | cop[tikv] | table:t1      | keep order:false                                                                                                      |
+------------------------------+---------+-----------+---------------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
5 rows in set (0.00 sec)