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ALTER TABLE

ALTER TABLE 语句用于对已有表进行修改,以符合新表结构。ALTER TABLE 语句可用于:

语法图

AlterTableStmt ::=
    'ALTER' IgnoreOptional 'TABLE' TableName ( AlterTableSpecListOpt AlterTablePartitionOpt | 'ANALYZE' 'PARTITION' PartitionNameList ( 'INDEX' IndexNameList )? AnalyzeOptionListOpt )

TableName ::=
    Identifier ('.' Identifier)?

AlterTableSpec ::=
    TableOptionList
|   'SET' 'TIFLASH' 'REPLICA' LengthNum LocationLabelList
|   'CONVERT' 'TO' CharsetKw ( CharsetName | 'DEFAULT' ) OptCollate
|   'ADD' ( ColumnKeywordOpt IfNotExists ( ColumnDef ColumnPosition | '(' TableElementList ')' ) | Constraint | 'PARTITION' IfNotExists NoWriteToBinLogAliasOpt ( PartitionDefinitionListOpt | 'PARTITIONS' NUM ) )
|   ( ( 'CHECK' | 'TRUNCATE' ) 'PARTITION' | ( 'OPTIMIZE' | 'REPAIR' | 'REBUILD' ) 'PARTITION' NoWriteToBinLogAliasOpt ) AllOrPartitionNameList
|   'COALESCE' 'PARTITION' NoWriteToBinLogAliasOpt NUM
|   'DROP' ( ColumnKeywordOpt IfExists ColumnName RestrictOrCascadeOpt | 'PRIMARY' 'KEY' |  'PARTITION' IfExists PartitionNameList | ( KeyOrIndex IfExists | 'CHECK' ) Identifier | 'FOREIGN' 'KEY' IfExists Symbol )
|   'EXCHANGE' 'PARTITION' Identifier 'WITH' 'TABLE' TableName WithValidationOpt
|   ( 'IMPORT' | 'DISCARD' ) ( 'PARTITION' AllOrPartitionNameList )? 'TABLESPACE'
|   'REORGANIZE' 'PARTITION' NoWriteToBinLogAliasOpt ReorganizePartitionRuleOpt
|   'ORDER' 'BY' AlterOrderItem ( ',' AlterOrderItem )*
|   ( 'DISABLE' | 'ENABLE' ) 'KEYS'
|   ( 'MODIFY' ColumnKeywordOpt IfExists | 'CHANGE' ColumnKeywordOpt IfExists ColumnName ) ColumnDef ColumnPosition
|   'ALTER' ( ColumnKeywordOpt ColumnName ( 'SET' 'DEFAULT' ( SignedLiteral | '(' Expression ')' ) | 'DROP' 'DEFAULT' ) | 'CHECK' Identifier EnforcedOrNot | 'INDEX' Identifier IndexInvisible )
|   'RENAME' ( ( 'COLUMN' | KeyOrIndex ) Identifier 'TO' Identifier | ( 'TO' |  | 'AS' ) TableName )
|   LockClause
|   AlgorithmClause
|   'FORCE'
|   ( 'WITH' | 'WITHOUT' ) 'VALIDATION'
|   'SECONDARY_LOAD'
|   'SECONDARY_UNLOAD'

示例

CREATE TABLE t1 (id INT NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY AUTO_INCREMENT, c1 INT NOT NULL);
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.11 sec)
INSERT INTO t1 (c1) VALUES (1),(2),(3),(4),(5);
Query OK, 5 rows affected (0.03 sec)
Records: 5  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0
EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE c1 = 3;
+---------------------+----------+------+-------------------------------------------------------------+
| id                  | count    | task | operator info                                               |
+---------------------+----------+------+-------------------------------------------------------------+
| TableReader_7       | 10.00    | root | data:Selection_6                                            |
| └─Selection_6       | 10.00    | cop  | eq(test.t1.c1, 3)                                           |
|   └─TableScan_5     | 10000.00 | cop  | table:t1, range:[-inf,+inf], keep order:false, stats:pseudo |
+---------------------+----------+------+-------------------------------------------------------------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)
ALTER TABLE t1 ADD INDEX (c1);
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.30 sec)
EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE c1 = 3;
+-------------------+-------+------+-----------------------------------------------------------------+
| id                | count | task | operator info                                                   |
+-------------------+-------+------+-----------------------------------------------------------------+
| IndexReader_6     | 10.00 | root | index:IndexScan_5                                               |
| └─IndexScan_5     | 10.00 | cop  | table:t1, index:c1, range:[3,3], keep order:false, stats:pseudo |
+-------------------+-------+------+-----------------------------------------------------------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

MySQL 兼容性

  • 支持除空间类型外的所有数据类型。
  • 不支持 FULLTEXTHASHSPATIAL 索引。

另请参阅