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Quick Start Guide for the TiDB Database Platform

This guide walks you through the quickest way to get started with TiDB. For non-production environments, you can deploy your TiDB database by either of the following methods:

Deploy a local test cluster

  • Scenario: Quickly deploy a local TiDB cluster for testing using a single macOS or Linux server. By deploying such a cluster, you can learn the basic architecture of TiDB and the operation of its components, such as TiDB, TiKV, PD, and the monitoring components.
  • macOS
  • Linux

As a distributed system, a basic TiDB test cluster usually consists of 2 TiDB instances, 3 TiKV instances, 3 PD instances, and optional TiFlash instances. With TiUP Playground, you can quickly build the test cluster by taking the following steps:

  1. Download and install TiUP:

    curl --proto '=https' --tlsv1.2 -sSf https://tiup-mirrors.pingcap.com/install.sh | sh
    

    If the following message is displayed, you have installed TiUP successfully:

    Successfully set mirror to https://tiup-mirrors.pingcap.com
    Detected shell: zsh
    Shell profile:  /Users/user/.zshrc
    /Users/user/.zshrc has been modified to add tiup to PATH
    open a new terminal or source /Users/user/.zshrc to use it
    Installed path: /Users/user/.tiup/bin/tiup
    ===============================================
    Have a try:     tiup playground
    ===============================================
    

    Note the Shell profile path in the output above. You need to use the path in the next step.

  2. Declare the global environment variable:

    source ${your_shell_profile}
    
  3. Start the cluster in the current session:

    • If you want to start a TiDB cluster of the latest version with 1 TiDB instance, 1 TiKV instance, 1 PD instance, and 1 TiFlash instance, run the following command:

      tiup playground
      
    • If you want to specify the TiDB version and the number of the instances of each component, run a command like this:

      tiup playground v6.4.0 --db 2 --pd 3 --kv 3
      

      The command downloads a version cluster to the local machine and starts it, such as v6.4.0. To view the latest version, run tiup list tidb.

      This command returns the access methods of the cluster:

      CLUSTER START SUCCESSFULLY, Enjoy it ^-^
      To connect TiDB: mysql --comments --host 127.0.0.1 --port 4001 -u root -p (no password)
      To connect TiDB: mysql --comments --host 127.0.0.1 --port 4000 -u root -p (no password)
      To view the dashboard: http://127.0.0.1:2379/dashboard
      PD client endpoints: [127.0.0.1:2379 127.0.0.1:2382 127.0.0.1:2384]
      To view Prometheus: http://127.0.0.1:9090
      To view Grafana: http://127.0.0.1:3000
      
  4. Start a new session to access TiDB:

    • Use the TiUP client to connect to TiDB.

      tiup client
      
    • You can also use the MySQL client to connect to TiDB.

      mysql --host 127.0.0.1 --port 4000 -u root
      
  5. Access the Prometheus dashboard of TiDB at http://127.0.0.1:9090.

  6. Access the TiDB Dashboard at http://127.0.0.1:2379/dashboard. The default username is root, with an empty password.

  7. Access the Grafana dashboard of TiDB through http://127.0.0.1:3000. Both the default username and password are admin.

  8. (Optional) Load data to TiFlash for analysis.

  9. Clean up the cluster after the test deployment:

    1. Stop the above TiDB service by pressing Control+C.

    2. Run the following command after the service is stopped:

      tiup clean --all
      

As a distributed system, a basic TiDB test cluster usually consists of 2 TiDB instances, 3 TiKV instances, 3 PD instances, and optional TiFlash instances. With TiUP Playground, you can quickly build the test cluster by taking the following steps:

  1. Download and install TiUP:

    curl --proto '=https' --tlsv1.2 -sSf https://tiup-mirrors.pingcap.com/install.sh | sh
    

    If the following message is displayed, you have installed TiUP successfully:

    Successfully set mirror to https://tiup-mirrors.pingcap.com
    Detected shell: zsh
    Shell profile:  /Users/user/.zshrc
    /Users/user/.zshrc has been modified to add tiup to PATH
    open a new terminal or source /Users/user/.zshrc to use it
    Installed path: /Users/user/.tiup/bin/tiup
    ===============================================
    Have a try:     tiup playground
    ===============================================
    

    Note the Shell profile path in the output above. You need to use the path in the next step.

  2. Declare the global environment variable:

    source ${your_shell_profile}
    
  3. Start the cluster in the current session:

    • If you want to start a TiDB cluster of the latest version with 1 TiDB instance, 1 TiKV instance, 1 PD instance, and 1 TiFlash instance, run the following command:

      tiup playground
      
    • If you want to specify the TiDB version and the number of the instances of each component, run a command like this:

      tiup playground v6.4.0 --db 2 --pd 3 --kv 3
      

      The command downloads a version cluster to the local machine and starts it, such as v6.4.0. To view the latest version, run tiup list tidb.

      This command returns the access methods of the cluster:

      CLUSTER START SUCCESSFULLY, Enjoy it ^-^
      To connect TiDB: mysql --host 127.0.0.1 --port 4000 -u root -p (no password) --comments
      To view the dashboard: http://127.0.0.1:2379/dashboard
      PD client endpoints: [127.0.0.1:2379]
      To view the Prometheus: http://127.0.0.1:9090
      To view the Grafana: http://127.0.0.1:3000
      
  4. Start a new session to access TiDB:

    • Use the TiUP client to connect to TiDB.

      tiup client
      
    • You can also use the MySQL client to connect to TiDB.

      mysql --host 127.0.0.1 --port 4000 -u root
      
  5. Access the Prometheus dashboard of TiDB at http://127.0.0.1:9090.

  6. Access the TiDB Dashboard at http://127.0.0.1:2379/dashboard. The default username is root, with an empty password.

  7. Access the Grafana dashboard of TiDB through http://127.0.0.1:3000. Both the default username and password are admin.

  8. (Optional) Load data to TiFlash for analysis.

  9. Clean up the cluster after the test deployment:

    1. Stop the process by pressing Control+C.

    2. Run the following command after the service is stopped:

      tiup clean --all
      

Simulate production deployment on a single machine

  • Scenario: Experience the smallest TiDB cluster with the complete topology and simulate the production deployment steps on a single Linux server.

This section describes how to deploy a TiDB cluster using a YAML file of the smallest topology in TiUP.

Prepare

Prepare a target machine that meets the following requirements:

  • CentOS 7.3 or a later version is installed
  • The Linux OS has access to the Internet, which is required to download TiDB and related software installation packages

The smallest TiDB cluster topology is as follows:

InstanceCountIPConfiguration
TiKV310.0.1.1
10.0.1.1
10.0.1.1
Avoid conflict between the port and the directory
TiDB110.0.1.1The default port
Global directory configuration
PD110.0.1.1The default port
Global directory configuration
TiFlash110.0.1.1The default port
Global directory configuration
Monitor110.0.1.1The default port
Global directory configuration

Other requirements for the target machine:

  • The root user and its password is required

  • Stop the firewall service of the target machine, or open the port needed by the TiDB cluster nodes

  • Currently, the TiUP cluster supports deploying TiDB on the x86_64 (AMD64) and ARM architectures:

    • It is recommended to use CentOS 7.3 or later versions on AMD64
    • It is recommended to use CentOS 7.6 1810 on ARM

Deploy

  1. Download and install TiUP:

    curl --proto '=https' --tlsv1.2 -sSf https://tiup-mirrors.pingcap.com/install.sh | sh
    
  2. Declare the global environment variable.

    source ${your_shell_profile}
    
  3. Install the cluster component of TiUP:

    tiup cluster
    
  4. If the TiUP cluster is already installed on the machine, update the software version:

    tiup update --self && tiup update cluster
    
  5. Use the root user privilege to increase the connection limit of the sshd service. This is because TiUP needs to simulate deployment on multiple machines.

    1. Modify /etc/ssh/sshd_config, and set MaxSessions to 20.

    2. Restart the sshd service:

      service sshd restart
      
  6. Create and start the cluster:

    Edit the configuration file according to the following template, and name it as topo.yaml:

    # # Global variables are applied to all deployments and used as the default value of
    # # the deployments if a specific deployment value is missing.
    global:
     user: "tidb"
     ssh_port: 22
     deploy_dir: "/tidb-deploy"
     data_dir: "/tidb-data"
    
    # # Monitored variables are applied to all the machines.
    monitored:
     node_exporter_port: 9100
     blackbox_exporter_port: 9115
    
    server_configs:
     tidb:
       log.slow-threshold: 300
     tikv:
       readpool.storage.use-unified-pool: false
       readpool.coprocessor.use-unified-pool: true
     pd:
       replication.enable-placement-rules: true
       replication.location-labels: ["host"]
     tiflash:
       logger.level: "info"
    
    pd_servers:
     - host: 10.0.1.1
    
    tidb_servers:
     - host: 10.0.1.1
    
    tikv_servers:
     - host: 10.0.1.1
       port: 20160
       status_port: 20180
       config:
         server.labels: { host: "logic-host-1" }
    
     - host: 10.0.1.1
       port: 20161
       status_port: 20181
       config:
         server.labels: { host: "logic-host-2" }
    
     - host: 10.0.1.1
       port: 20162
       status_port: 20182
       config:
         server.labels: { host: "logic-host-3" }
    
    tiflash_servers:
     - host: 10.0.1.1
    
    monitoring_servers:
     - host: 10.0.1.1
    
    grafana_servers:
     - host: 10.0.1.1
    
    • user: "tidb": Use the tidb system user (automatically created during deployment) to perform the internal management of the cluster. By default, use port 22 to log in to the target machine via SSH.
    • replication.enable-placement-rules: This PD parameter is set to ensure that TiFlash runs normally.
    • host: The IP of the target machine.
  7. Execute the cluster deployment command:

    tiup cluster deploy <cluster-name> <tidb-version> ./topo.yaml --user root -p
    
    • <cluster-name>: Set the cluster name

    • <tidb-version>: Set the TiDB cluster version. You can see all the supported TiDB versions by running the tiup list tidb command

    • -p: Specify the password used to connect to the target machine.

    Enter "y" and the root user's password to complete the deployment:

    Do you want to continue? [y/N]:  y
    Input SSH password:
    
  8. Start the cluster:

    tiup cluster start <cluster-name>
    
  9. Access the cluster:

    • Install the MySQL client. If it is already installed, skip this step.

      yum -y install mysql
      
    • Access TiDB. The password is empty:

      mysql -h 10.0.1.1 -P 4000 -u root
      
    • Access the Grafana monitoring dashboard at http://{grafana-ip}:3000. The default username and password are both admin.

    • Access the TiDB Dashboard at http://{pd-ip}:2379/dashboard. The default username is root, and the password is empty.

    • To view the currently deployed cluster list:

      tiup cluster list
      
    • To view the cluster topology and status:

      tiup cluster display <cluster-name>
      

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