Important

You are viewing the documentation of an older version of the TiDB database (TiDB v5.4).

It is recommended that you use the latest LTS version of the TiDB database.

TiDB Specific Functions

The following functions are TiDB extensions, and are not present in MySQL:

Function nameFunction description
TIDB_BOUNDED_STALENESS()The TIDB_BOUNDED_STALENESS function instructs TiDB to read the data as new as possible within the time range. See also: Read Historical Data Using the AS OF TIMESTAMP Clause
TIDB_DECODE_KEY(str)The TIDB_DECODE_KEY function can be used to decode a TiDB-encoded key entry into a JSON structure containing _tidb_rowid and table_id. These encoded keys can be found in some system tables and in logging outputs.
TIDB_DECODE_PLAN(str)The TIDB_DECODE_PLAN function can be used to decode a TiDB execution plan.
TIDB_IS_DDL_OWNER()The TIDB_IS_DDL_OWNER function can be used to check whether or not the TiDB instance you are connected to is the one that is the DDL Owner. The DDL Owner is the TiDB instance that is tasked with executing DDL statements on behalf of all other nodes in the cluster.
TIDB_PARSE_TSO(num)The TIDB_PARSE_TSO function can be used to extract the physical timestamp from a TiDB TSO timestamp. See also: tidb_current_ts.
TIDB_VERSION()The TIDB_VERSION function returns the TiDB version with additional build information.
TIDB_DECODE_SQL_DIGESTS(digests, stmtTruncateLength)The TIDB_DECODE_SQL_DIGESTS() function is used to query the normalized SQL statements (a form without formats and arguments) corresponding to the set of SQL digests in the cluster.
VITESS_HASH(str)The VITESS_HASH function returns the hash of a string that is compatible with Vitess' HASH function. This is intended to help the data migration from Vitess.

Examples

This section provides examples for some of the functions above.

TIDB_DECODE_KEY

In the following example, the table t1 has a hidden rowid that is generated by TiDB. The TIDB_DECODE_KEY is used in the statement. From the result, you can see that the hidden rowid is decoded and output, which is a typical result for the non-clustered primary key.

SELECT START_KEY, TIDB_DECODE_KEY(START_KEY) FROM information_schema.tikv_region_status WHERE table_name='t1' AND REGION_ID=2\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
                 START_KEY: 7480000000000000FF3B5F728000000000FF1DE3F10000000000FA
TIDB_DECODE_KEY(START_KEY): {"_tidb_rowid":1958897,"table_id":"59"}
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

In the following example, the table t2 has a compound clustered primary key. From the JSON output, you can see a handle that contains the name and value for both of the columns that are part of the primary key.

show create table t2\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
       Table: t2
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `t2` (
  `id` binary(36) NOT NULL,
  `a` tinyint(3) unsigned NOT NULL,
  `v` varchar(512) DEFAULT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`a`,`id`) /*T![clustered_index] CLUSTERED */
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8mb4 COLLATE=utf8mb4_bin
1 row in set (0.001 sec)
select * from information_schema.tikv_region_status where table_name='t2' limit 1\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
                REGION_ID: 48
                START_KEY: 7480000000000000FF3E5F720400000000FF0000000601633430FF3338646232FF2D64FF3531632D3131FF65FF622D386337352DFFFF3830653635303138FFFF61396265000000FF00FB000000000000F9
                  END_KEY:
                 TABLE_ID: 62
                  DB_NAME: test
               TABLE_NAME: t2
                 IS_INDEX: 0
                 INDEX_ID: NULL
               INDEX_NAME: NULL
           EPOCH_CONF_VER: 1
            EPOCH_VERSION: 38
            WRITTEN_BYTES: 0
               READ_BYTES: 0
         APPROXIMATE_SIZE: 136
         APPROXIMATE_KEYS: 479905
  REPLICATIONSTATUS_STATE: NULL
REPLICATIONSTATUS_STATEID: NULL
1 row in set (0.005 sec)
select tidb_decode_key('7480000000000000FF3E5F720400000000FF0000000601633430FF3338646232FF2D64FF3531632D3131FF65FF622D386337352DFFFF3830653635303138FFFF61396265000000FF00FB000000000000F9');
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| tidb_decode_key('7480000000000000FF3E5F720400000000FF0000000601633430FF3338646232FF2D64FF3531632D3131FF65FF622D386337352DFFFF3830653635303138FFFF61396265000000FF00FB000000000000F9') |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| {"handle":{"a":"6","id":"c4038db2-d51c-11eb-8c75-80e65018a9be"},"table_id":62}                                                                                                        |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.001 sec)

TIDB_DECODE_PLAN

You can find TiDB execution plans in encoded form in the slow query log. The TIDB_DECODE_PLAN() function is then used to decode the encoded plans into a human-readable form.

This function is useful because a plan is captured at the time the statement is executed. Re-executing the statement in EXPLAIN might produce different results as data distribution and statistics evolves over time.

SELECT tidb_decode_plan('8QIYMAkzMV83CQEH8E85LjA0CWRhdGE6U2VsZWN0aW9uXzYJOTYwCXRpbWU6NzEzLjHCtXMsIGxvb3BzOjIsIGNvcF90YXNrOiB7bnVtOiAxLCBtYXg6IDU2OC41wgErRHByb2Nfa2V5czogMCwgcnBjXxEpAQwFWBAgNTQ5LglZyGNvcHJfY2FjaGVfaGl0X3JhdGlvOiAwLjAwfQkzLjk5IEtCCU4vQQoxCTFfNgkxXzAJMwm2SGx0KHRlc3QudC5hLCAxMDAwMCkNuQRrdgmiAHsFbBQzMTMuOMIBmQnEDDk2MH0BUgEEGAoyCTQzXzUFVwX1oGFibGU6dCwga2VlcCBvcmRlcjpmYWxzZSwgc3RhdHM6cHNldWRvCTk2ISE2aAAIMTUzXmYA')\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
  tidb_decode_plan('8QIYMAkzMV83CQEH8E85LjA0CWRhdGE6U2VsZWN0aW9uXzYJOTYwCXRpbWU6NzEzLjHCtXMsIGxvb3BzOjIsIGNvcF90YXNrOiB7bnVtOiAxLCBtYXg6IDU2OC41wgErRHByb2Nfa2V5czogMCwgcnBjXxEpAQwFWBAgNTQ5LglZyGNvcHJfY2FjaGVfaGl0X3JhdGlvOiAwLjAwfQkzLjk5IEtCCU4vQQoxCTFfNgkxXz:     id                     task         estRows    operator info                              actRows    execution info                                                                                                                         memory     disk
    TableReader_7          root         319.04     data:Selection_6                           960        time:713.1µs, loops:2, cop_task: {num: 1, max: 568.5µs, proc_keys: 0, rpc_num: 1, rpc_time: 549.1µs, copr_cache_hit_ratio: 0.00}    3.99 KB    N/A
    └─Selection_6          cop[tikv]    319.04     lt(test.t.a, 10000)                        960        tikv_task:{time:313.8µs, loops:960}                                                                                                   N/A        N/A
      └─TableFullScan_5    cop[tikv]    960        table:t, keep order:false, stats:pseudo    960        tikv_task:{time:153µs, loops:960}                                                                                                     N/A        N/A

TIDB_PARSE_TSO

The TIDB_PARSE_TSO function can be used to extract the physical timestamp from a TiDB TSO timestamp. TSO stands for Time Stamp Oracle and is a monotonically increasing timestamp given out by PD (Placement Driver) for every transaction.

A TSO is a number that consists of two parts:

  • A physical timestamp
  • A logical counter
BEGIN;
SELECT TIDB_PARSE_TSO(@@tidb_current_ts);
ROLLBACK;
+-----------------------------------+
| TIDB_PARSE_TSO(@@tidb_current_ts) |
+-----------------------------------+
| 2021-05-26 11:33:37.776000        |
+-----------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.0012 sec)

Here TIDB_PARSE_TSO is used to extract the physical timestamp from the timestamp number that is available in the tidb_current_ts session variable. Because timestamps are given out per transaction, this function is running in a transaction.

TIDB_VERSION

The TIDB_VERSION function can be used to get the version and build details of the TiDB server that you are connected to. You can use this function when reporting issues on GitHub.

SELECT TIDB_VERSION()\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
TIDB_VERSION(): Release Version: v5.1.0-alpha-13-gd5e0ed0aa-dirty
Edition: Community
Git Commit Hash: d5e0ed0aaed72d2f2dfe24e9deec31cb6cb5fdf0
Git Branch: master
UTC Build Time: 2021-05-24 14:39:20
GoVersion: go1.13
Race Enabled: false
TiKV Min Version: v3.0.0-60965b006877ca7234adaced7890d7b029ed1306
Check Table Before Drop: false
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

TIDB_DECODE_SQL_DIGESTS

The TIDB_DECODE_SQL_DIGESTS() function is used to query the normalized SQL statements (a form without formats and arguments) corresponding to the set of SQL digests in the cluster. This function accepts 1 or 2 arguments:

  • digests: A string. This parameter is in the format of a JSON string array, and each string in the array is a SQL digest.
  • stmtTruncateLength: An integer (optional). It is used to limit the length of each SQL statement in the returned result. If a SQL statement exceeds the specified length, the statement is truncated. 0 means that the length is unlimited.

This function returns a string, which is in the format of a JSON string array. The i-th item in the array is the normalized SQL statement corresponding to the i-th element in the digests parameter. If an element in the digests parameter is not a valid SQL digest or the system cannot find the corresponding SQL statement, the corresponding item in the returned result is null. If the truncation length is specified (stmtTruncateLength > 0), for each statement in the returned result that exceeds this length, the first stmtTruncateLength characters are retained and the suffix "..." is added at the end to indicate the truncation. If the digests parameter is NULL, the returned value of the function is NULL.

Note
  • Only users with the PROCESS privilege can use this function.
  • When TIDB_DECODE_SQL_DIGESTS is executed, TiDB queries the statement corresponding to each SQL digest from the statement summary tables, so there is no guarantee that the corresponding statement can always be found for any SQL digest. Only the statements that have been executed in the cluster can be found, and whether these SQL statements can be queried or not is also affected by the related configuration of the statement summary tables. For the detailed description of the statement summary table, see Statement Summary Tables.
  • This function has a high overhead. In queries with a large number of rows (for example, querying the full table of information_schema.cluster_tidb_trx on a large and busy cluster), using this function might cause the queries to run for too long. Use it with caution.
    • This function has a high overhead because every time it is called, it internally queries the STATEMENTS_SUMMARY, STATEMENTS_SUMMARY_HISTORY, CLUSTER_STATEMENTS_SUMMARY, and CLUSTER_STATEMENTS_SUMMARY_HISTORY tables, and the query involves the UNION operation. This function currently does not support vectorization, that is, when calling this function for multiple rows of data, the above query is performed separately for each row.
set @digests = '["e6f07d43b5c21db0fbb9a31feac2dc599787763393dd5acbfad80e247eb02ad5","38b03afa5debbdf0326a014dbe5012a62c51957f1982b3093e748460f8b00821","e5796985ccafe2f71126ed6c0ac939ffa015a8c0744a24b7aee6d587103fd2f7"]';

select tidb_decode_sql_digests(@digests);
+------------------------------------+
| tidb_decode_sql_digests(@digests)  |
+------------------------------------+
| ["begin",null,"select * from `t`"] |
+------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

In the above example, the parameter is a JSON array containing 3 SQL digests, and the corresponding SQL statements are the three items in the query results. But the SQL statement corresponding to the second SQL digest cannot be found from the cluster, so the second item in the result is null.

select tidb_decode_sql_digests(@digests, 10);
+---------------------------------------+
| tidb_decode_sql_digests(@digests, 10) |
+---------------------------------------+
| ["begin",null,"select * f..."]        |
+---------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

The above call specifies the second parameter (that is, the truncation length) as 10, and the length of the third statement in the query result is greater than 10. Therefore, only the first 10 characters are retained, and "..." is added at the end, which indicates the truncation.

See also:

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