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Explain Statements That Use Joins

In TiDB, the SQL Optimizer needs to decide in which order tables should be joined and what is the most efficient join algorithm for a particular SQL statement. The examples in this document are based on the following sample data:

CREATE TABLE t1 (id BIGINT NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY auto_increment, pad1 BLOB, pad2 BLOB, pad3 BLOB, int_col INT NOT NULL DEFAULT 0);
CREATE TABLE t2 (id BIGINT NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY auto_increment, t1_id BIGINT NOT NULL, pad1 BLOB, pad2 BLOB, pad3 BLOB, INDEX(t1_id));
INSERT INTO t1 SELECT NULL, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), 0 FROM dual;
INSERT INTO t1 SELECT NULL, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), 0 FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t1 SELECT NULL, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), 0 FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t1 SELECT NULL, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), 0 FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t1 SELECT NULL, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), 0 FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t1 SELECT NULL, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), 0 FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t1 SELECT NULL, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), 0 FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t1 SELECT NULL, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), 0 FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t1 SELECT NULL, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), 0 FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t1 SELECT NULL, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), 0 FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t1 SELECT NULL, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), 0 FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t2 SELECT NULL, a.id, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024) FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t2 SELECT NULL, a.id, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024) FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t2 SELECT NULL, a.id, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024) FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t2 SELECT NULL, a.id, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024) FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t2 SELECT NULL, a.id, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024) FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t2 SELECT NULL, a.id, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024) FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t2 SELECT NULL, a.id, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024) FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t2 SELECT NULL, a.id, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024) FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
INSERT INTO t2 SELECT NULL, a.id, RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024), RANDOM_BYTES(1024) FROM t1 a JOIN t1 b JOIN t1 c LIMIT 10000;
UPDATE t1 SET int_col = 1 WHERE pad1 = (SELECT pad1 FROM t1 ORDER BY RAND() LIMIT 1);
SELECT SLEEP(1);
ANALYZE TABLE t1, t2;

Index Join

If the number of estimated rows that need to be joined is small (typically less than 10000 rows), it is preferable to use the index join method. This method of join works similar to the primary method of join used in MySQL. In the following example, the operator ├─TableReader_28(Build) first reads the table t1. For each row that matches, TiDB will probe the table t2:

EXPLAIN SELECT /*+ INL_JOIN(t1, t2) */ * FROM t1 INNER JOIN t2 ON t1.id = t2.t1_id;
+---------------------------------+-----------+-----------+------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| id                              | estRows   | task      | access object                | operator info                                                                  |
+---------------------------------+-----------+-----------+------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| IndexJoin_10                    | 180000.00 | root      |                              | inner join, inner:IndexLookUp_9, outer key:test.t1.id, inner key:test.t2.t1_id |
| ├─TableReader_28(Build)         | 142020.00 | root      |                              | data:TableFullScan_27                                                          |
| │ └─TableFullScan_27            | 142020.00 | cop[tikv] | table:t1                     | keep order:false                                                               |
| └─IndexLookUp_9(Probe)          | 1.27      | root      |                              |                                                                                |
|   ├─IndexRangeScan_7(Build)     | 1.27      | cop[tikv] | table:t2, index:t1_id(t1_id) | range: decided by [eq(test.t2.t1_id, test.t1.id)], keep order:false            |
|   └─TableRowIDScan_8(Probe)     | 1.27      | cop[tikv] | table:t2                     | keep order:false                                                               |
+---------------------------------+-----------+-----------+------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
6 rows in set (0.00 sec)

Index join is efficient in memory usage, but might be slower to execute than other join methods when a large number of probe operations are required. Consider also the following query:

SELECT * FROM t1 INNER JOIN t2 ON t1.id=t2.t1_id WHERE t1.pad1 = 'value' and t2.pad1='value';

In an inner join operation, TiDB implements join reordering and might access either t1 or t2 first. Assume that TiDB selects t1 as the first table to apply the build step, and then TiDB is able to filter on the predicate t1.col = 'value' before probing the table t2. The filter for the predicate t2.col='value' will be applied on each probe of table t2, which might be less efficient than other join methods.

Index join is effective if the build side is small and the probe side is pre-indexed and large. Consider the following query where an index join performs worse than a hash join and is not chosen by the SQL Optimizer:

-- DROP previously added index
ALTER TABLE t2 DROP INDEX t1_id;

EXPLAIN ANALYZE SELECT /*+ INL_JOIN(t1, t2) */  * FROM t1 INNER JOIN t2 ON t1.id = t2.t1_id WHERE t1.int_col = 1;
EXPLAIN ANALYZE SELECT /*+ HASH_JOIN(t1, t2) */  * FROM t1 INNER JOIN t2 ON t1.id = t2.t1_id WHERE t1.int_col = 1;
EXPLAIN ANALYZE SELECT * FROM t1 INNER JOIN t2 ON t1.id = t2.t1_id WHERE t1.int_col = 1;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.29 sec)

+-----------------------------+----------+---------+-----------+---------------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+------+
| id                          | estRows  | actRows | task      | access object | execution info                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    | operator info                                                                  | memory                | disk |
+-----------------------------+----------+---------+-----------+---------------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+------+
| IndexJoin_13                | 90000.00 | 20000   | root      |               | time:613.19955ms, loops:21, inner:{total:42.494047ms, concurrency:5, task:12, construct:33.149671ms, fetch:9.322956ms, build:8.66µs}, probe:32.435355ms                                                                                                                                           | inner join, inner:TableReader_9, outer key:test.t2.t1_id, inner key:test.t1.id | 269.63341903686523 MB | N/A  |
| ├─TableReader_19(Build)     | 90000.00 | 90000   | root      |               | time:586.613252ms, loops:95, cop_task: {num: 3, max: 205.893949ms, min: 185.051354ms, avg: 194.878702ms, p95: 205.893949ms, max_proc_keys: 31715, p95_proc_keys: 31715, tot_proc: 332ms, tot_wait: 4ms, rpc_num: 4, rpc_time: 584.907774ms, copr_cache_hit_ratio: 0.00}, backoff{regionMiss: 2ms} | data:TableFullScan_18                                                          | 182.624906539917 MB   | N/A  |
| │ └─TableFullScan_18        | 90000.00 | 90000   | cop[tikv] | table:t2      | time:0ns, loops:0, tikv_task:{proc max:72ms, min:64ms, p80:72ms, p95:72ms, iters:102, tasks:3}                                                                                                                                                                                                    | keep order:false                                                               | N/A                   | N/A  |
| └─TableReader_9(Probe)      | 0.00     | 5       | root      |               | time:8.432051ms, loops:14, cop_task: {num: 14, max: 629.805µs, min: 226.129µs, avg: 420.979µs, p95: 629.805µs, max_proc_keys: 4, p95_proc_keys: 4, rpc_num: 15, rpc_time: 5.953229ms, copr_cache_hit_ratio: 0.00}                                                                                 | data:Selection_8                                                               | N/A                   | N/A  |
|   └─Selection_8             | 0.00     | 5       | cop[tikv] |               | time:0ns, loops:0, tikv_task:{proc max:0s, min:0s, p80:0s, p95:0s, iters:14, tasks:14}                                                                                                                                                                                                            | eq(test.t1.int_col, 1)                                                         | N/A                   | N/A  |
|     └─TableRangeScan_7      | 1.00     | 25      | cop[tikv] | table:t1      | time:0ns, loops:0, tikv_task:{proc max:0s, min:0s, p80:0s, p95:0s, iters:14, tasks:14}                                                                                                                                                                                                            | range: decided by [test.t2.t1_id], keep order:false                            | N/A                   | N/A  |
+-----------------------------+----------+---------+-----------+---------------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+------+
6 rows in set (0.61 sec)

+------------------------------+----------+---------+-----------+---------------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+---------+
| id                           | estRows  | actRows | task      | access object | execution info                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          | operator info                                     | memory                | disk    |
+------------------------------+----------+---------+-----------+---------------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+---------+
| HashJoin_19                  | 90000.00 | 20000   | root      |               | time:406.098528ms, loops:22, build_hash_table:{total:148.574644ms, fetch:146.843636ms, build:1.731008ms}, probe:{concurrency:5, total:2.026547436s, max:406.039309ms, probe:205.337813ms, fetch:1.821209623s}                                           | inner join, equal:[eq(test.t1.id, test.t2.t1_id)] | 30.00731658935547 MB  | 0 Bytes |
| ├─TableReader_22(Build)      | 71.01    | 10000   | root      |               | time:147.072725ms, loops:12, cop_task: {num: 3, max: 145.847743ms, min: 50.932527ms, avg: 113.009029ms, p95: 145.847743ms, max_proc_keys: 31724, p95_proc_keys: 31724, tot_proc: 284ms, rpc_num: 3, rpc_time: 338.950488ms, copr_cache_hit_ratio: 0.00} | data:Selection_21                                 | 29.679713249206543 MB | N/A     |
| │ └─Selection_21             | 71.01    | 10000   | cop[tikv] |               | time:0ns, loops:0, tikv_task:{proc max:132ms, min:48ms, p80:132ms, p95:132ms, iters:83, tasks:3}                                                                                                                                                        | eq(test.t1.int_col, 1)                            | N/A                   | N/A     |
| │   └─TableFullScan_20       | 71010.00 | 71010   | cop[tikv] | table:t1      | time:0ns, loops:0, tikv_task:{proc max:128ms, min:48ms, p80:128ms, p95:128ms, iters:83, tasks:3}                                                                                                                                                        | keep order:false                                  | N/A                   | N/A     |
| └─TableReader_24(Probe)      | 90000.00 | 90000   | root      |               | time:365.918504ms, loops:91, cop_task: {num: 3, max: 398.62145ms, min: 338.460345ms, avg: 358.732721ms, p95: 398.62145ms, max_proc_keys: 31715, p95_proc_keys: 31715, tot_proc: 536ms, rpc_num: 3, rpc_time: 1.076128895s, copr_cache_hit_ratio: 0.00}  | data:TableFullScan_23                             | 182.62489891052246 MB | N/A     |
|   └─TableFullScan_23         | 90000.00 | 90000   | cop[tikv] | table:t2      | time:0ns, loops:0, tikv_task:{proc max:100ms, min:40ms, p80:100ms, p95:100ms, iters:102, tasks:3}                                                                                                                                                       | keep order:false                                  | N/A                   | N/A     |
+------------------------------+----------+---------+-----------+---------------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+---------+
6 rows in set (0.41 sec)

+------------------------------+----------+---------+-----------+---------------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+---------+
| id                           | estRows  | actRows | task      | access object | execution info                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           | operator info                                     | memory                | disk    |
+------------------------------+----------+---------+-----------+---------------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+---------+
| HashJoin_20                  | 90000.00 | 20000   | root      |               | time:441.897092ms, loops:21, build_hash_table:{total:138.600864ms, fetch:136.353899ms, build:2.246965ms}, probe:{concurrency:5, total:2.207403854s, max:441.850032ms, probe:148.01937ms, fetch:2.059384484s}                                             | inner join, equal:[eq(test.t1.id, test.t2.t1_id)] | 30.00731658935547 MB  | 0 Bytes |
| ├─TableReader_25(Build)      | 71.01    | 10000   | root      |               | time:138.081807ms, loops:12, cop_task: {num: 3, max: 134.702901ms, min: 53.356202ms, avg: 93.372186ms, p95: 134.702901ms, max_proc_keys: 31724, p95_proc_keys: 31724, tot_proc: 236ms, rpc_num: 3, rpc_time: 280.017658ms, copr_cache_hit_ratio: 0.00}   | data:Selection_24                                 | 29.680171966552734 MB | N/A     |
| │ └─Selection_24             | 71.01    | 10000   | cop[tikv] |               | time:0ns, loops:0, tikv_task:{proc max:80ms, min:52ms, p80:80ms, p95:80ms, iters:83, tasks:3}                                                                                                                                                            | eq(test.t1.int_col, 1)                            | N/A                   | N/A     |
| │   └─TableFullScan_23       | 71010.00 | 71010   | cop[tikv] | table:t1      | time:0ns, loops:0, tikv_task:{proc max:80ms, min:52ms, p80:80ms, p95:80ms, iters:83, tasks:3}                                                                                                                                                            | keep order:false                                  | N/A                   | N/A     |
| └─TableReader_22(Probe)      | 90000.00 | 90000   | root      |               | time:413.560548ms, loops:91, cop_task: {num: 3, max: 432.938474ms, min: 231.263355ms, avg: 365.710741ms, p95: 432.938474ms, max_proc_keys: 31715, p95_proc_keys: 31715, tot_proc: 488ms, rpc_num: 3, rpc_time: 1.097021983s, copr_cache_hit_ratio: 0.00} | data:TableFullScan_21                             | 182.62489891052246 MB | N/A     |
|   └─TableFullScan_21         | 90000.00 | 90000   | cop[tikv] | table:t2      | time:0ns, loops:0, tikv_task:{proc max:80ms, min:80ms, p80:80ms, p95:80ms, iters:102, tasks:3}                                                                                                                                                           | keep order:false                                  | N/A                   | N/A     |
+------------------------------+----------+---------+-----------+---------------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+---------+
6 rows in set (0.44 sec)

In the above example, the index join operation is missing an index on t1.int_col. Once this index is added, the performance of the operation improves from 0.61 sec to 0.14 sec, as the following result shows:

-- Re-add index
ALTER TABLE t2 ADD INDEX (t1_id);

EXPLAIN ANALYZE SELECT /*+ INL_JOIN(t1, t2) */  * FROM t1 INNER JOIN t2 ON t1.id = t2.t1_id WHERE t1.int_col = 1;
EXPLAIN ANALYZE SELECT /*+ HASH_JOIN(t1, t2) */  * FROM t1 INNER JOIN t2 ON t1.id = t2.t1_id WHERE t1.int_col = 1;
EXPLAIN ANALYZE SELECT * FROM t1 INNER JOIN t2 ON t1.id = t2.t1_id WHERE t1.int_col = 1;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (3.65 sec)

+---------------------------------+----------+---------+-----------+------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+------+
| id                              | estRows  | actRows | task      | access object                | execution info                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           | operator info                                                                   | memory                | disk |
+---------------------------------+----------+---------+-----------+------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+------+
| IndexJoin_11                    | 90000.00 | 0       | root      |                              | time:136.876686ms, loops:1, inner:{total:114.948158ms, concurrency:5, task:7, construct:5.329114ms, fetch:109.610054ms, build:2.38µs}, probe:1.699799ms                                                                                                                  | inner join, inner:IndexLookUp_10, outer key:test.t1.id, inner key:test.t2.t1_id | 29.864535331726074 MB | N/A  |
| ├─TableReader_32(Build)         | 10000.00 | 10000   | root      |                              | time:95.755212ms, loops:12, cop_task: {num: 3, max: 95.652443ms, min: 30.758712ms, avg: 57.545129ms, p95: 95.652443ms, max_proc_keys: 31724, p95_proc_keys: 31724, tot_proc: 124ms, rpc_num: 3, rpc_time: 172.528417ms, copr_cache_hit_ratio: 0.00}                      | data:Selection_31                                                               | 29.679298400878906 MB | N/A  |
| │ └─Selection_31                | 10000.00 | 10000   | cop[tikv] |                              | time:0ns, loops:0, tikv_task:{proc max:44ms, min:28ms, p80:44ms, p95:44ms, iters:84, tasks:3}                                                                                                                                                                            | eq(test.t1.int_col, 1)                                                          | N/A                   | N/A  |
| │   └─TableFullScan_30          | 71010.00 | 71010   | cop[tikv] | table:t1                     | time:0ns, loops:0, tikv_task:{proc max:44ms, min:28ms, p80:44ms, p95:44ms, iters:84, tasks:3}                                                                                                                                                                            | keep order:false                                                                | N/A                   | N/A  |
| └─IndexLookUp_10(Probe)         | 9.00     | 0       | root      |                              | time:103.93801ms, loops:7                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                |                                                                                 | 2.1787109375 KB       | N/A  |
|   ├─IndexRangeScan_8(Build)     | 9.00     | 0       | cop[tikv] | table:t2, index:t1_id(t1_id) | time:0s, loops:0, cop_task: {num: 7, max: 23.969244ms, min: 12.003682ms, avg: 14.659066ms, p95: 23.969244ms, tot_proc: 100ms, rpc_num: 7, rpc_time: 102.435966ms, copr_cache_hit_ratio: 0.00}, tikv_task:{proc max:24ms, min:12ms, p80:16ms, p95:24ms, iters:7, tasks:7} | range: decided by [eq(test.t2.t1_id, test.t1.id)], keep order:false             | N/A                   | N/A  |
|   └─TableRowIDScan_9(Probe)     | 9.00     | 0       | cop[tikv] | table:t2                     | time:0ns, loops:0                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        | keep order:false                                                                | N/A                   | N/A  |
+---------------------------------+----------+---------+-----------+------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+------+
7 rows in set (0.14 sec)

+------------------------------+----------+---------+-----------+---------------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+---------+
| id                           | estRows  | actRows | task      | access object | execution info                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         | operator info                                     | memory                | disk    |
+------------------------------+----------+---------+-----------+---------------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+---------+
| HashJoin_31                  | 90000.00 | 0       | root      |               | time:402.263795ms, loops:1, build_hash_table:{total:128.467151ms, fetch:126.871282ms, build:1.595869ms}, probe:{concurrency:5, total:2.010969815s, max:402.212295ms, probe:8.924769ms, fetch:2.002045046s}                                             | inner join, equal:[eq(test.t1.id, test.t2.t1_id)] | 29.689788818359375 MB | 0 Bytes |
| ├─TableReader_34(Build)      | 10000.00 | 10000   | root      |               | time:126.765972ms, loops:11, cop_task: {num: 3, max: 126.721293ms, min: 54.375481ms, avg: 84.518849ms, p95: 126.721293ms, max_proc_keys: 31724, p95_proc_keys: 31724, tot_proc: 208ms, rpc_num: 3, rpc_time: 253.478218ms, copr_cache_hit_ratio: 0.00} | data:Selection_33                                 | 29.679292678833008 MB | N/A     |
| │ └─Selection_33             | 10000.00 | 10000   | cop[tikv] |               | time:0ns, loops:0, tikv_task:{proc max:72ms, min:56ms, p80:72ms, p95:72ms, iters:84, tasks:3}                                                                                                                                                          | eq(test.t1.int_col, 1)                            | N/A                   | N/A     |
| │   └─TableFullScan_32       | 71010.00 | 71010   | cop[tikv] | table:t1      | time:0ns, loops:0, tikv_task:{proc max:72ms, min:56ms, p80:72ms, p95:72ms, iters:84, tasks:3}                                                                                                                                                          | keep order:false                                  | N/A                   | N/A     |
| └─TableReader_36(Probe)      | 90000.00 | 90000   | root      |               | time:400.447175ms, loops:90, cop_task: {num: 3, max: 400.838264ms, min: 309.474053ms, avg: 341.01943ms, p95: 400.838264ms, max_proc_keys: 31719, p95_proc_keys: 31719, tot_proc: 528ms, rpc_num: 3, rpc_time: 1.02298055s, copr_cache_hit_ratio: 0.00} | data:TableFullScan_35                             | 182.62786674499512 MB | N/A     |
|   └─TableFullScan_35         | 90000.00 | 90000   | cop[tikv] | table:t2      | time:0ns, loops:0, tikv_task:{proc max:108ms, min:72ms, p80:108ms, p95:108ms, iters:102, tasks:3}                                                                                                                                                      | keep order:false                                  | N/A                   | N/A     |
+------------------------------+----------+---------+-----------+---------------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+---------+
6 rows in set (0.40 sec)

+------------------------------+----------+---------+-----------+---------------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+---------+
| id                           | estRows  | actRows | task      | access object | execution info                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          | operator info                                     | memory                | disk    |
+------------------------------+----------+---------+-----------+---------------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+---------+
| HashJoin_32                  | 90000.00 | 0       | root      |               | time:356.282882ms, loops:1, build_hash_table:{total:154.187155ms, fetch:151.259305ms, build:2.92785ms}, probe:{concurrency:5, total:1.781087041s, max:356.238312ms, probe:7.406146ms, fetch:1.773680895s}                                               | inner join, equal:[eq(test.t1.id, test.t2.t1_id)] | 29.689788818359375 MB | 0 Bytes |
| ├─TableReader_41(Build)      | 10000.00 | 10000   | root      |               | time:151.190175ms, loops:11, cop_task: {num: 3, max: 151.055697ms, min: 56.214348ms, avg: 96.70463ms, p95: 151.055697ms, max_proc_keys: 31724, p95_proc_keys: 31724, tot_proc: 240ms, rpc_num: 3, rpc_time: 290.019942ms, copr_cache_hit_ratio: 0.00}   | data:Selection_40                                 | 29.679292678833008 MB | N/A     |
| │ └─Selection_40             | 10000.00 | 10000   | cop[tikv] |               | time:0ns, loops:0, tikv_task:{proc max:80ms, min:56ms, p80:80ms, p95:80ms, iters:84, tasks:3}                                                                                                                                                           | eq(test.t1.int_col, 1)                            | N/A                   | N/A     |
| │   └─TableFullScan_39       | 71010.00 | 71010   | cop[tikv] | table:t1      | time:0ns, loops:0, tikv_task:{proc max:80ms, min:56ms, p80:80ms, p95:80ms, iters:84, tasks:3}                                                                                                                                                           | keep order:false                                  | N/A                   | N/A     |
| └─TableReader_43(Probe)      | 90000.00 | 90000   | root      |               | time:354.68523ms, loops:90, cop_task: {num: 3, max: 354.313475ms, min: 328.460762ms, avg: 345.530558ms, p95: 354.313475ms, max_proc_keys: 31719, p95_proc_keys: 31719, tot_proc: 508ms, rpc_num: 3, rpc_time: 1.036492374s, copr_cache_hit_ratio: 0.00} | data:TableFullScan_42                             | 182.62786102294922 MB | N/A     |
|   └─TableFullScan_42         | 90000.00 | 90000   | cop[tikv] | table:t2      | time:0ns, loops:0, tikv_task:{proc max:84ms, min:64ms, p80:84ms, p95:84ms, iters:102, tasks:3}                                                                                                                                                          | keep order:false                                  | N/A                   | N/A     |
+------------------------------+----------+---------+-----------+---------------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+---------+
6 rows in set (0.36 sec)

Note:

In the above example, the SQL Optimizer selects the hash join plan which performs worse than the index join. Query optimization is an NP-complete problem, and less-than-optimal plans might be chosen. If this is a frequent query, it is recommended to use SQL Plan Management to bind a hint to a query, which can be easier to manage than inserting hints into queries that your application sends to TiDB.

Variations of Index Join

An index join operation using the hint INL_JOIN creates a hash table of the intermediate results before joining on the outer table. TiDB also supports creating a hash table on the outer table using the hint INL_HASH_JOIN. Each of these variations of index join is automatically selected by the SQL Optimizer.

Configuration

Index join performance is influenced by the following system variables:

Hash Join

In a hash join operation, TiDB reads and caches the data on the Build side of the join in a hash table, and then reads the data on the Probe side of the join, probing the hash table to access required rows. Hash joins require more memory to execute than index joins but execute much faster when there are a lot of rows that need to be joined. The hash join operator is multi-threaded in TiDB and executes in parallel.

An example of hash join is as follows:

EXPLAIN SELECT /*+ HASH_JOIN(t1, t2) */ * FROM t1, t2 WHERE t1.id = t2.id;
+-----------------------------+-----------+-----------+---------------+------------------------------------------------+
| id                          | estRows   | task      | access object | operator info                                  |
+-----------------------------+-----------+-----------+---------------+------------------------------------------------+
| HashJoin_27                 | 142020.00 | root      |               | inner join, equal:[eq(test.t1.id, test.t2.id)] |
| ├─TableReader_29(Build)     | 142020.00 | root      |               | data:TableFullScan_28                          |
| │ └─TableFullScan_28        | 142020.00 | cop[tikv] | table:t1      | keep order:false                               |
| └─TableReader_31(Probe)     | 180000.00 | root      |               | data:TableFullScan_30                          |
|   └─TableFullScan_30        | 180000.00 | cop[tikv] | table:t2      | keep order:false                               |
+-----------------------------+-----------+-----------+---------------+------------------------------------------------+
5 rows in set (0.00 sec)

For the execution process of HashJoin_27, TiDB performs the following operations in order:

  1. Cache the data of the Build side in memory.
  2. Construct a Hash Table on the Build side based on the cached data.
  3. Read the data at the Probe side.
  4. Use the data of the Probe side to probe the Hash Table.
  5. Return qualified data to the user.

The operator info column in the EXPLAIN result table also records other information about HashJoin_27, including whether the query is Inner Join or Outer Join, and what are the conditions of Join. In the above example, the query is an Inner Join, where the Join condition equal:[eq(test.t1.id, test.t2.id)] partly corresponds with the query condition WHERE t1.id = t2.id. The operator info of the other Join operators in the following examples is similar to this one.

Runtime Statistics

If tidb_mem_quota_query (default value: 1GB) is exceeded, TiDB will attempt to use temporary storage on condition that the oom-use-tmp-storage value is true (default). This means that the Build operator used as part of the hash join might be created on disk. Runtime statistics such as memory usage are visible in the execution info of the EXPLAIN ANALYZE result table. The following example shows the output of EXPLAIN ANALYZE with a 1GB (default) tidb_mem_quota_query quota, and a 500MB quota. At 500MB, disk is used for temporary storage:

EXPLAIN ANALYZE SELECT /*+ HASH_JOIN(t1, t2) */ * FROM t1, t2 WHERE t1.id = t2.id;
SET tidb_mem_quota_query=500 * 1024 * 1024;
EXPLAIN ANALYZE SELECT /*+ HASH_JOIN(t1, t2) */ * FROM t1, t2 WHERE t1.id = t2.id;
+-----------------------------+-----------+---------+-----------+---------------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+---------+
| id                          | estRows   | actRows | task      | access object | execution info                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           | operator info                                  | memory                | disk    |
+-----------------------------+-----------+---------+-----------+---------------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+---------+
| HashJoin_27                 | 142020.00 | 71010   | root      |               | time:647.508572ms, loops:72, build_hash_table:{total:579.254415ms, fetch:566.91012ms, build:12.344295ms}, probe:{concurrency:5, total:3.23315006s, max:647.520113ms, probe:330.884716ms, fetch:2.902265344s}                                             | inner join, equal:[eq(test.t1.id, test.t2.id)] | 209.61642456054688 MB | 0 Bytes |
| ├─TableReader_29(Build)     | 142020.00 | 71010   | root      |               | time:567.088247ms, loops:72, cop_task: {num: 2, max: 569.809411ms, min: 369.67451ms, avg: 469.74196ms, p95: 569.809411ms, max_proc_keys: 39245, p95_proc_keys: 39245, tot_proc: 400ms, rpc_num: 2, rpc_time: 939.447231ms, copr_cache_hit_ratio: 0.00}   | data:TableFullScan_28                          | 210.2100534439087 MB  | N/A     |
| │ └─TableFullScan_28        | 142020.00 | 71010   | cop[tikv] | table:t1      | proc max:64ms, min:48ms, p80:64ms, p95:64ms, iters:79, tasks:2                                                                                                                                                                                           | keep order:false                               | N/A                   | N/A     |
| └─TableReader_31(Probe)     | 180000.00 | 90000   | root      |               | time:337.233636ms, loops:91, cop_task: {num: 3, max: 569.790741ms, min: 332.758911ms, avg: 421.543165ms, p95: 569.790741ms, max_proc_keys: 31719, p95_proc_keys: 31719, tot_proc: 500ms, rpc_num: 3, rpc_time: 1.264570696s, copr_cache_hit_ratio: 0.00} | data:TableFullScan_30                          | 267.1126985549927 MB  | N/A     |
|   └─TableFullScan_30        | 180000.00 | 90000   | cop[tikv] | table:t2      | proc max:84ms, min:72ms, p80:84ms, p95:84ms, iters:102, tasks:3                                                                                                                                                                                          | keep order:false                               | N/A                   | N/A     |
+-----------------------------+-----------+---------+-----------+---------------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+---------+
5 rows in set (0.65 sec)

Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

+-----------------------------+-----------+---------+-----------+---------------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+----------------------+
| id                          | estRows   | actRows | task      | access object | execution info                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           | operator info                                  | memory                | disk                 |
+-----------------------------+-----------+---------+-----------+---------------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+----------------------+
| HashJoin_27                 | 142020.00 | 71010   | root      |               | time:963.983353ms, loops:72, build_hash_table:{total:775.961447ms, fetch:503.789677ms, build:272.17177ms}, probe:{concurrency:5, total:4.805454793s, max:963.973133ms, probe:922.156835ms, fetch:3.883297958s}                                           | inner join, equal:[eq(test.t1.id, test.t2.id)] | 93.53974533081055 MB  | 210.7459259033203 MB |
| ├─TableReader_29(Build)     | 142020.00 | 71010   | root      |               | time:504.062018ms, loops:72, cop_task: {num: 2, max: 509.276857ms, min: 402.66386ms, avg: 455.970358ms, p95: 509.276857ms, max_proc_keys: 39245, p95_proc_keys: 39245, tot_proc: 384ms, rpc_num: 2, rpc_time: 911.893237ms, copr_cache_hit_ratio: 0.00}  | data:TableFullScan_28                          | 210.20934200286865 MB | N/A                  |
| │ └─TableFullScan_28        | 142020.00 | 71010   | cop[tikv] | table:t1      | proc max:88ms, min:72ms, p80:88ms, p95:88ms, iters:79, tasks:2                                                                                                                                                                                           | keep order:false                               | N/A                   | N/A                  |
| └─TableReader_31(Probe)     | 180000.00 | 90000   | root      |               | time:363.058382ms, loops:91, cop_task: {num: 3, max: 412.659191ms, min: 358.489688ms, avg: 391.463008ms, p95: 412.659191ms, max_proc_keys: 31719, p95_proc_keys: 31719, tot_proc: 484ms, rpc_num: 3, rpc_time: 1.174326746s, copr_cache_hit_ratio: 0.00} | data:TableFullScan_30                          | 267.11340618133545 MB | N/A                  |
|   └─TableFullScan_30        | 180000.00 | 90000   | cop[tikv] | table:t2      | proc max:92ms, min:64ms, p80:92ms, p95:92ms, iters:102, tasks:3                                                                                                                                                                                          | keep order:false                               | N/A                   | N/A                  |
+-----------------------------+-----------+---------+-----------+---------------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+----------------------+
5 rows in set (0.98 sec)

Configuration

Hash join performance is influenced by the following system variables:

  • tidb_mem_quota_query (default value: 1GB) - if the memory quota for a query is exceeded, TiDB will attempt to spill the Build operator of a hash join to disk to save memory.
  • tidb_hash_join_concurrency (default value: 5) - the number of concurrent hash join tasks.

Merge Join

Merge join is a special sort of join that applies when both sides of the join are read in sorted order. It can be described as similar to an efficient zipper merge: as data is read on both the Build and the Probe sides of the join, the join operation works like a streaming operation. Merge joins require far less memory than hash join but do not execute in parallel.

The following is an example:

EXPLAIN SELECT /*+ MERGE_JOIN(t1, t2) */ * FROM t1, t2 WHERE t1.id = t2.id;
+-----------------------------+-----------+-----------+---------------+-------------------------------------------------------+
| id                          | estRows   | task      | access object | operator info                                         |
+-----------------------------+-----------+-----------+---------------+-------------------------------------------------------+
| MergeJoin_7                 | 142020.00 | root      |               | inner join, left key:test.t1.id, right key:test.t2.id |
| ├─TableReader_12(Build)     | 180000.00 | root      |               | data:TableFullScan_11                                 |
| │ └─TableFullScan_11        | 180000.00 | cop[tikv] | table:t2      | keep order:true                                       |
| └─TableReader_10(Probe)     | 142020.00 | root      |               | data:TableFullScan_9                                  |
|   └─TableFullScan_9         | 142020.00 | cop[tikv] | table:t1      | keep order:true                                       |
+-----------------------------+-----------+-----------+---------------+-------------------------------------------------------+
5 rows in set (0.00 sec)

For the execution process of the merge join operator, TiDB performs the following operations:

  1. Read all the data of a Join Group from the Build side into the memory.
  2. Read the data of the Probe side.
  3. Compare whether each row of data on the Probe side matches a complete Join Group on the Build side. Apart from equivalent conditions, there are non-equivalent conditions. Here "match" mainly refers to checking whether non-equivalent conditions are met. Join Group refers to the data with the same value among all Join Keys.