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Deploy a TiDB Cluster Using TiUP

TiUP is a cluster operation and maintenance tool introduced in TiDB 4.0. TiUP provides TiUP cluster, a cluster management component written in Golang. By using TiUP cluster, you can easily perform daily database operations, including deploying, starting, stopping, destroying, scaling, and upgrading a TiDB cluster, and manage TiDB cluster parameters.

TiUP supports deploying TiDB, TiFlash, TiDB Binlog, TiCDC, and the monitoring system. This document introduces how to deploy TiDB clusters of different topologies.

Step 1: Prerequisites and precheck

Make sure that you have read the following documents:

Step 2: Install TiUP on the control machine

You can install TiUP on the control machine in either of the two ways: online deployment and offline deployment.

Method 1: Deploy TiUP online

Log in to the control machine using a regular user account (take the tidb user as an example). All the following TiUP installation and cluster management operations can be performed by the tidb user.

  1. Install TiUP by executing the following command:

    curl --proto '=https' --tlsv1.2 -sSf https://tiup-mirrors.pingcap.com/install.sh | sh
  2. Set the TiUP environment variables:

    Redeclare the global environment variables:

    source .bash_profile

    Confirm whether TiUP is installed:

    which tiup
  3. Install the TiUP cluster component:

    tiup cluster
  4. If TiUP is already installed, update the TiUP cluster component to the latest version:

    tiup update --self && tiup update cluster

    Expected output includes “Update successfully!”.

  5. Verify the current version of your TiUP cluster:

    tiup --binary cluster

Method 2: Deploy TiUP offline

Perform the following steps in this section to deploy a TiDB cluster offline using TiUP:

Step 1: Prepare the TiUP offline component package

To prepare the TiUP offline component package, manually pack an offline component package using tiup mirror clone.

  1. Install the TiUP package manager online.

    1. Install the TiUP tool:

      curl --proto '=https' --tlsv1.2 -sSf https://tiup-mirrors.pingcap.com/install.sh | sh
    2. Redeclare the global environment variables:

      source .bash_profile
    3. Confirm whether TiUP is installed:

      which tiup
  2. Pull the mirror using TiUP.

    1. Pull the needed components on a machine that has access to the Internet:

      tiup mirror clone tidb-community-server-${version}-linux-amd64 ${version} --os=linux --arch=amd64

      The command above creates a directory named tidb-community-server-${version}-linux-amd64 in the current directory, which contains the component package necessary for starting a cluster.

    2. Pack the component package by using the tar command and send the package to the control machine in the isolated environment:

      tar czvf tidb-community-server-${version}-linux-amd64.tar.gz tidb-community-server-${version}-linux-amd64

      tidb-community-server-${version}-linux-amd64.tar.gz is an independent offline environment package.

Step 2: Deploy the offline TiUP component

After sending the package to the control machine of the target cluster, install the TiUP component by running the following commands:

tar xzvf tidb-community-server-${version}-linux-amd64.tar.gz && \
sh tidb-community-server-${version}-linux-amd64/local_install.sh && \
source /home/tidb/.bash_profile

The local_install.sh script automatically executes the tiup mirror set tidb-community-server-${version}-linux-amd64 command to set the current mirror address to tidb-community-server-${version}-linux-amd64.

To switch the mirror to another directory, you can manually execute the tiup mirror set <mirror-dir> command. To switch the mirror to the online environment, you can execute the tiup mirror set https://tiup-mirrors.pingcap.com command.

Step 3: Initialize cluster topology file

According to the intended cluster topology, you need to manually create and edit the cluster initialization configuration file.

To create the cluster initialization configuration file, you can create a YAML-formatted configuration file on the control machine using TiUP:

tiup cluster template > topology.yaml

Note:

For the hybrid deployment scenarios, you can also execute tiup cluster template --full > topology.yaml to create the recommended topology template. For the geo-distributed deployment scenarios, you can execute tiup cluster template --multi-dc > topology.yaml to create the recommended topology template.

Execute vi topology.yaml to see the configuration file content:

global:
  user: "tidb"
  ssh_port: 22
  deploy_dir: "/tidb-deploy"
  data_dir: "/tidb-data"
server_configs: {}
pd_servers:
  - host: 10.0.1.4
  - host: 10.0.1.5
  - host: 10.0.1.6
tidb_servers:
  - host: 10.0.1.7
  - host: 10.0.1.8
  - host: 10.0.1.9
tikv_servers:
  - host: 10.0.1.1
  - host: 10.0.1.2
  - host: 10.0.1.3
monitoring_servers:
  - host: 10.0.1.4
grafana_servers:
  - host: 10.0.1.4
alertmanager_servers:
  - host: 10.0.1.4

The following examples cover six common scenarios. You need to modify the configuration file (named topology.yaml) according to the topology description and templates in the corresponding links. For other scenarios, edit the configuration template accordingly.

  • Minimal deployment topology

    This is the basic cluster topology, including tidb-server, tikv-server, and pd-server. It is suitable for OLTP applications.

  • TiFlash deployment topology

    This is to deploy TiFlash along with the minimal cluster topology. TiFlash is a columnar storage engine, and gradually becomes a standard cluster topology. It is suitable for real-time HTAP applications.

  • TiCDC deployment topology

    This is to deploy TiCDC along with the minimal cluster topology. TiCDC is a tool for replicating the incremental data of TiDB, introduced in TiDB 4.0. It supports multiple downstream platforms, such as TiDB, MySQL, and MQ. Compared with TiDB Binlog, TiCDC has lower latency and native high availability. After the deployment, start TiCDC and create the replication task using cdc cli.

  • TiDB Binlog deployment topology

    This is to deploy TiDB Binlog along with the minimal cluster topology. TiDB Binlog is the widely used component for replicating incremental data. It provides near real-time backup and replication.

  • TiSpark deployment topology

    This is to deploy TiSpark along with the minimal cluster topology. TiSpark is a component built for running Apache Spark on top of TiDB/TiKV to answer the OLAP queries. Currently, TiUP cluster's support for TiSpark is still experimental.

  • Hybrid deployment topology

    This is to deploy multiple instances on a single machine. You need to add extra configurations for the directory, port, resource ratio, and label.

  • Geo-distributed deployment topology

    This topology takes the typical architecture of three data centers in two cities as an example. It introduces the geo-distributed deployment architecture and the key configuration that requires attention.

Note:

Step 4: Execute the deployment command

Note:

You can use secret keys or interactive passwords for security authentication when you deploy TiDB using TiUP:

  • If you use secret keys, you can specify the path of the keys through -i or --identity_file;
  • If you use passwords, add the -p flag to enter the password interaction window;
  • If password-free login to the target machine has been configured, no authentication is required.

In general, TiUP creates the user and group specified in the topology.yaml file on the target machine, with the following exceptions:

  • The user name configured in topology.yaml already exists on the target machine.
  • You have used the --skip-create-user option in the command line to explicitly skip the step of creating the user.

Before you execute the deploy command, use the check and check --apply commands to detect and automatically repair the potential risks in the cluster:

tiup cluster check ./topology.yaml --user root [-p] [-i /home/root/.ssh/gcp_rsa]
tiup cluster check ./topology.yaml --apply --user root [-p] [-i /home/root/.ssh/gcp_rsa]

Then execute the deploy command to deploy the TiDB cluster:

tiup cluster deploy tidb-test v5.0.4 ./topology.yaml --user root [-p] [-i /home/root/.ssh/gcp_rsa]

In the above command:

  • The name of the deployed TiDB cluster is tidb-test.
  • You can see the latest supported versions by running tiup list tidb. This document takes v5.0.4 as an example.
  • The initialization configuration file is topology.yaml.
  • --user root: Log in to the target machine through the root key to complete the cluster deployment, or you can use other users with ssh and sudo privileges to complete the deployment.
  • [-i] and [-p]: optional. If you have configured login to the target machine without password, these parameters are not required. If not, choose one of the two parameters. [-i] is the private key of the root user (or other users specified by --user) that has access to the target machine. [-p] is used to input the user password interactively.
  • If you need to specify the user group name to be created on the target machine, see this example.

At the end of the output log, you will see Deployed cluster `tidb-test` successfully. This indicates that the deployment is successful.

Step 5: Check the clusters managed by TiUP

tiup cluster list

TiUP supports managing multiple TiDB clusters. The command above outputs information of all the clusters currently managed by TiUP, including the name, deployment user, version, and secret key information:

Starting /home/tidb/.tiup/components/cluster/v1.3.0/cluster list
Name              User  Version        Path                                                        PrivateKey
----              ----  -------        ----                                                        ----------
tidb-test         tidb  v5.0.4      /home/tidb/.tiup/storage/cluster/clusters/tidb-test         /home/tidb/.tiup/storage/cluster/clusters/tidb-test/ssh/id_rsa

Step 6: Check the status of the deployed TiDB cluster

For example, execute the following command to check the status of the tidb-test cluster:

tiup cluster display tidb-test

Expected output includes the instance ID, role, host, listening port, and status (because the cluster is not started yet, so the status is Down/inactive), and directory information.

Step 7: Start the TiDB cluster

tiup cluster start tidb-test

If the output log includes Started cluster `tidb-test` successfully, the start is successful.

Step 8: Verify the running status of the TiDB cluster

For the specific operations, see Verify Cluster Status.

What's next

If you have deployed TiFlash along with the TiDB cluster, see the following documents:

If you have deployed TiCDC along with the TiDB cluster, see the following documents:

Note:

By default, TiDB, TiUP and TiDB Dashboard share usage details with PingCAP to help understand how to improve the product. For details about what is shared and how to disable the sharing, see Telemetry.