- Key Features
- Horizontal Scalability
- MySQL Compatible Syntax
- Replicate from and to MySQL
- Distributed Transactions with Strong Consistency
- Cloud Native Architecture
- Minimize ETL with HTAP
- Fault Tolerance & Recovery with Raft
- Automatic Rebalancing
- Deployment and Orchestration with Ansible, Kubernetes, Docker
- JSON Support
- Spark Integration
- Read Historical Data Without Restoring from Backup
- Fast Import and Restore of Data
- Hybrid of Column and Row Storage
- SQL Plan Management
- Open Source
- Online Schema Changes
- Key Features
- Get Started
- From Binary Tarball
- Orchestrated Deployment
- Geographic Redundancy
- SQL Language Structure
- Data Types
- Numeric Types
- Date and Time Types
- String Types
- Functions and Operators
- Function and Operator Reference
- Type Conversion in Expression Evaluation
- Control Flow Functions
- String Functions
- Numeric Functions and Operators
- Date and Time Functions
- Bit Functions and Operators
- Cast Functions and Operators
- Encryption and Compression Functions
- Information Functions
- JSON Functions
- Aggregate (GROUP BY) Functions
- Window Functions
- Miscellaneous Functions
- Precision Math
- List of Expressions for Pushdown
- SQL Statements
ADMIN CANCEL DDL
ADMIN CHECKSUM TABLE
ADMIN CHECK [TABLE|INDEX]
ADMIN SHOW DDL [JOBS|QUERIES]
CREATE TABLE LIKE
SET DEFAULT ROLE
SET [NAMES|CHARACTER SET]
SET [GLOBAL|SESSION] <variable>
SHOW ANALYZE STATUS
SHOW CHARACTER SET
SHOW [FULL] COLUMNS FROM
SHOW CREATE TABLE
SHOW CREATE USER
SHOW [FULL] FIELDS FROM
SHOW INDEXES [FROM|IN]
SHOW INDEX [FROM|IN]
SHOW KEYS [FROM|IN]
SHOW [FULL] PROCESSSLIST
SHOW [FULL] TABLES
SHOW TABLE REGIONS
SHOW TABLE STATUS
SHOW [GLOBAL|SESSION] VARIABLES
- System Databases
- Garbage Collection (GC)
- Understanding the Query Execution Plan
- The Blocklist of Optimization Rules and Expression Pushdown
- Introduction to Statistics
- TopN and Limit Push Down
- Optimizer Hints
- Follower Read
- Check the TiDB Cluster Status Using SQL Statements
- Execution Plan Binding
- Statement Summary Table
- Tune TiKV
- Operating System Tuning
- Column Pruning
- Key Monitoring Metrics
- Best Practices
- TiDB Binlog
- Binlog Consumer Client
- TiDB Binlog Relay Log
- Bidirectional Replication Between TiDB Clusters
- TiDB Lightning
- All Releases
In versions before 3.0.8, TiDB implements the optimistic transaction mode by default, in which the transaction commit might fail because of transaction conflict. To make sure that the commit succeeds, you need to modify the application and add an automatic retry mechanism. You can avoid this issue by using the pessimistic transaction mode of TiDB.
To apply the pessimistic transaction mode, choose any of the following three methods that suits your needs:
BEGIN PESSIMISTIC;statement to allow the transaction to apply the pessimistic transaction mode. You can write it in comment style as
BEGIN /*!90000 PESSIMISTIC */;to make it compatible with the MySQL syntax.
set @@tidb_txn_mode = 'pessimistic';statement to allow all the explicit transactions (namely non-autocommit transactions) processed in this session to apply the pessimistic transaction mode.
set @@global.tidb_txn_mode = 'pessimistic';statement to allow all newly created sessions of the entire cluster to apply the pessimistic transaction mode to execute explicit transactions.
After you set
pessimistic, the pessimistic transaction mode is applied by default. To apply the optimistic transaction mode to the transaction, you can use any of the following three methods:
BEGIN OPTIMISTIC;statement to allow the transaction to apply the optimistic transaction mode. You can write it in comment style as
BEGIN /*!90000 OPTIMISTIC */;to make it compatible with the MySQL syntax.
set @@tidb_txn_mode = 'optimistic';statement to allow all the transactions processed in this session to apply the optimistic transaction mode.
set @@global.tidb_txn_mode = 'optimistic;'or
set @@global.tidb_txn_mode = '';to allow all newly created sessions of the entire cluster to apply the optimistic transaction mode to the transactions.
BEGIN PESSIMISTIC; and
BEGIN OPTIMISTIC; statements take precedence over the
tidb_txn_mode system variable. Transactions started with these two statements ignore the system variable and support using both the pessimistic and optimistic transaction modes.
To disable the pessimistic transaction mode, modify the configuration file and add
enable = false to the
Pessimistic transactions in TiDB behave similarly to those in MySQL. See the minor differences in Difference with MySQL InnoDB.
When you perform the
SELECT FOR UPDATEstatement, transactions read the last committed data and apply a pessimistic lock on the data being read.
When you perform the
INSERTstatement, transactions read the last committed data to execute on them and apply a pessimistic lock on the modified data.
When a pessimistic lock is applied on a row of data, other write transactions attempting to modify the data are blocked and have to wait for the lock to be released.
When a pessimistic lock is applied on a row of data, other transactions attempting to read the data are not blocked and can read the committed data.
All the locks are released when the transaction is committed or rolled back.
When multiple transactions wait for the same lock to be released, the lock is acquired in the order of the
start tsof the transactions as much as possible; however, the order cannot be strictly guaranteed.
Deadlocks in concurrent transactions can be detected by the deadlock detector. The detector randomly terminates one of the transactions, and a MySQL-compatible error code
TiDB supports both the optimistic transaction mode and pessimistic transaction mode in the same cluster. You can specify either mode for transaction execution.
TiDB sets the lock wait timeout time by the
innodb_lock_wait_timeoutvariable. After the lock times out, a MySQL-compatible error code
TiDB supports the
FOR UPDATE NOWAITsyntax and does not block and wait for locks to be released. Instead, a MySQL-compatible error code
When TiDB executes DML or
SELECT FOR UPDATEstatements that use range in the WHERE clause, the concurrent
INSERTstatements within the range are not blocked.
By implementing Gap Lock, InnoDB blocks the execution of concurrent
INSERTstatements within the range. It is mainly used to support statement-based binlog. Therefore, some applications lower the isolation level to READ COMMITTED to avoid concurrency performance problems caused by Gap Lock. TiDB does not support Gap Lock, so there is no need to pay the concurrency performance cost.
TiDB does not support
SELECT LOCK IN SHARE MODE.
SELECT LOCK IN SHARE MODEis executed, it has the same effect as that without the lock, so the read or write operation of other transactions is not blocked.
DDL may result in failure of the pessimistic transaction commit.
When DDL is executed in MySQL, it might be blocked by the transaction that is being executed. However, in this scenario, the DDL operation is not blocked in TiDB, which leads to failure of the pessimistic transaction commit:
ERROR 1105 (HY000): Information schema is changed. [try again later].
START TRANSACTION WITH CONSISTENT SNAPSHOT, MySQL can still read the tables that are created later in other transactions, while TiDB cannot.
The autocommit transactions do not support the pessimistic locking.
None of the autocommit statements acquire the pessimistic lock. These statements do not display any difference in the user side, because the nature of pessimistic transactions is to turn the retry of the whole transaction into a single DML retry. The autocommit transactions automatically retry even when TiDB closes the retry, which has the same effect as pessimistic transactions.
SELECT FOR UPDATEstatement does not wait for lock, either.
The TiDB log shows
pessimistic write conflict, retry statement.
When a write conflict occurs, the optimistic transaction is terminated directly, but the pessimistic transaction retries the statement with the latest data until there is no write conflict. The log prints this entry with each retry, so there is no need for extra attention.
When DML is executed, an error
pessimistic lock retry limit reachedis returned.
In the pessimistic transaction mode, every statement has a retry limit. This error is returned when the retry times of write conflict exceeds the limit. The default retry limit is
256. To change the limit, modify the
[pessimistic-txn]category in the TiDB configuration file.
The execution time limit for pessimistic transactions.
The execution time of transactions cannot exceed the limit of
tikv_gc_life_time. In addition, the pessimistic transactions have a TTL (Time to Live) limit of 10 minutes, so the pessimistic transactions that execute over 10 minutes might fail to commit.