- Key Features
- Horizontal Scalability
- MySQL Compatible Syntax
- Replicate from and to MySQL
- Distributed Transactions with Strong Consistency
- Cloud Native Architecture
- Minimize ETL with HTAP
- Fault Tolerance & Recovery with Raft
- Automatic Rebalancing
- Deployment and Orchestration with Ansible, Kubernetes, Docker
- JSON Support
- Spark Integration
- Read Historical Data Without Restoring from Backup
- Fast Import and Restore of Data
- Hybrid of Column and Row Storage
- SQL Plan Management
- Open Source
- Online Schema Changes
- Get Started
- MySQL Compatibility
- SQL Language Structure
- Data Types
- Functions and Operators
- Function and Operator Reference
- Type Conversion in Expression Evaluation
- Control Flow Functions
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- Date and Time Functions
- Bit Functions and Operators
- Cast Functions and Operators
- Encryption and Compression Functions
- Information Functions
- JSON Functions
- Aggregate (GROUP BY) Functions
- Window Functions
- Miscellaneous Functions
- Precision Math
- List of Expressions for Pushdown
- SQL Statements
ADMIN CANCEL DDL
ADMIN CHECKSUM TABLE
ADMIN CHECK [TABLE|INDEX]
ADMIN SHOW DDL [JOBS|QUERIES]
CREATE TABLE LIKE
SET DEFAULT ROLE
SET [NAMES|CHARACTER SET]
SET [GLOBAL|SESSION] <variable>
SHOW ANALYZE STATUS
SHOW CHARACTER SET
SHOW [FULL] COLUMNS FROM
SHOW CREATE TABLE
SHOW CREATE USER
SHOW [FULL] FIELDS FROM
SHOW INDEXES [FROM|IN]
SHOW INDEX [FROM|IN]
SHOW KEYS [FROM|IN]
SHOW [FULL] PROCESSSLIST
SHOW [FULL] TABLES
SHOW TABLE REGIONS
SHOW TABLE STATUS
SHOW [GLOBAL|SESSION] VARIABLES
- Generated Columns
- Character Set
- SQL Mode
- System Databases
- Errors Codes
- Supported Client Drivers
- Garbage Collection (GC)
- Understanding the Query Execution Plan
- The Blocklist of Optimization Rules and Expression Pushdown
- Introduction to Statistics
- TopN and Limit Push Down
- Optimizer Hints
- Check the TiDB Cluster Status Using SQL Statements
- Execution Plan Binding
- Statement Summary Table
- Tune TiKV
- Operating System Tuning
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- Key Monitoring Metrics
- Alert Rules
- Best Practices
- TiDB Binlog
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- TiDB Operator
- Table Filter
- TiDB Data Migration
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- TiKV Control
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- All Releases
You are viewing the documentation of an older version of the TiDB database (TiDB v3.0).
Loader is a data import tool to load data to TiDB.
It can be downloaded as part of the tidb-enterprise-tools package.
Since tools like mysqldump will take us days to migrate massive amounts of data, we used the Mydumper/myloader suite to multi-thread export and import data. During the process, we found that Mydumper works well. However, as myloader lacks functions of error retry and savepoint, it is inconvenient for us to use. Therefore, we developed loader, which reads the output data files of Mydumper and imports data to TiDB through the MySQL protocol.
Multi-thread import data
Support table level concurrent import and scattered hot spot write
Support concurrent import of a single large table and scattered hot spot write
Support Mydumper data format
Support error retry
Improve the speed of importing data through system variable
- Do not import the
mysqlsystem database from the MySQL instance to the downstream TiDB instance.
- If Mydumper uses the
-mparameter, the data is exported without the table schema and the loader can not import the data.
- If you use the default
checkpoint-schemaparameter, after importing the data of a database, run
drop database tidb_loaderbefore you begin to import the next database.
- It is recommended to specify the
checkpoint-schema = "tidb_loader"parameter when importing data.
-L string: the log level setting, which can be set as debug, info, warn, error, fatal (default: "info") -P int: the port of TiDB (default: 4000) -V boolean: prints version and exit -c string: config file -checkpoint-schema string: the database name of checkpoint. In the execution process, loader will constantly update this database. After recovering from an interruption, loader will get the process of the last run through this database. (default: "tidb_loader") -d string: the storage directory of data that need to import (default: "./") -h string: the host of TiDB (default: "127.0.0.1") -p string: the account and password of TiDB -status-addr string: It can be used by Prometheus to pull Loader metrics, and is also the pprof address of Loader (default: ":8272") -t int: the number of thread,increase this as TiKV nodes increase (default: 16) -u string: the user name of TiDB (default: "root")
Apart from command line parameters, you can also use configuration files. The format is shown as below:
# Loader log level, which can be set as "debug", "info", "warn", "error" and "fatal" (default: "info") log-level = "info" # Loader log file log-file = "loader.log" # Directory of the dump to import (default: "./") dir = "./" # It can be used by Prometheus to pull Loader metrics, and is also the pprof address of Loader (default: ":8272"). status-addr = ":8272" # The checkpoint data is saved to TiDB, and the schema name is defined here. checkpoint-schema = "tidb_loader" # Number of threads restoring concurrently for worker pool (default: 16). Each worker restore one file at a time. pool-size = 16 # The target database information [db] host = "127.0.0.1" user = "root" password = "" port = 4000 # `sql_mode` of session level used to connect to the database when loading data. If `sql-mode` is not provided or set to "@DownstreamDefault", the global `sql_mode` for downstream is used. # sql-mode = "" # `max-allowed-packet` sets the maximum data packet allowed for database connection, which corresponds to the `max_allowed_packet` in system parameters. If it is set to 0, the global `max_allowed_packet` for downstream is used. max-allowed-packet = 67108864 # The sharding replicating rules support wildcharacter. # 1. The asterisk character (*, also called "star") matches zero or more characters, # for example, "doc*" matches "doc" and "document" but not "dodo"; # asterisk character must be in the end of the wildcard word, # and there is only one asterisk in one wildcard word. # 2. The question mark '?' matches exactly one character. # [[route-rules]] # pattern-schema = "shard_db_*" # pattern-table = "shard_table_*" # target-schema = "shard_db" # target-table = "shard_table"
Command line parameter:
./bin/loader -d ./test -h 127.0.0.1 -u root -P 4000
Or use configuration file "config.toml":
Loader supports importing data from sharded tables into one table within one database according to the route-rules. Before replicating, check the following items:
- Whether the sharding rules can be represented using the
- Whether the sharded tables contain monotone increasing primary keys, or whether there are conflicts in the unique indexes or the primary keys after the combination.
To combine tables, start the
route-rules parameter in the configuration file of Loader:
- To use the table combination function, it is required to fill the
- If the
target-tableare NULL, the table name is not combined or converted.
[[route-rules]] pattern-schema = "example_db" pattern-table = "table_*" target-schema = "example_db" target-table = "table"
The following error is reported during full data import:
packet for query is too large. Try adjusting the 'max_allowed_packet' variable
- Both MySQL client and MySQL/TiDB Server have
max_allowed_packetquotas. If any of the
max_allowed_packetquotas is violated, the client receives a corresponding error message. Currently, the latest version of Loader and TiDB Server all have a default
- Please use the latest version, or the latest stable version of the tool. See the download page.
- The full data import processing module in Loader or DM does not support splitting
dump sqlsfiles. This is because Mydumper has the simple code implementation, as shown in the code comment
/* Poor man's data dump code */. To support correctly splitting
dump sqlsfiles, you need to implement a sound parser based on TiDB parser, but you will encounter the following issues:
- A large amount of workload.
- The task is difficult. It is not easy to ensure the correctness.
- Significant performance reduction.
For the above reasons, it is recommended to use the
-s, --statement-sizeoption which Mydumper offers to control the size of
Attempted size of INSERT statement in bytes, default 1000000.
According to the default configuration of
--statement-size, the size of
Insert Statementthat Mydumper generates is as close as
1M. This default configuration ensures that this error will not occur in most cases.
Sometimes the following
WARNlog appears during the dump process. The
WARNlog itself does not affect the dump process but indicates that the dumped table might be a wide table.
Row bigger than statement_size for xxx
If a single row of a wide table exceeds 64M, you need to modify and enable the following two configurations:
134217728 = 128M) in TiDB Server.
max-allowed-packet=128Mto db configuration in the Loader configuration file according to your situation, and then restart the progress or task.