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Identify Slow Queries

To help users identify slow queries, analyze and improve the performance of SQL execution, TiDB outputs the statements whose execution time exceeds slow-threshold (The default value is 300 milliseconds) to slow-query-file (The default value is "tidb-slow.log").

Usage example

# Time: 2019-08-14T09:26:59.487776265+08:00
# Txn_start_ts: 410450924122144769
# User: root@127.0.0.1
# Conn_ID: 3086
# Query_time: 1.527627037
# Process_time: 0.07 Request_count: 1 Total_keys: 131073 Process_keys: 131072 Prewrite_time: 0.335415029 Commit_time: 0.032175429 Get_commit_ts_time: 0.000177098 Local_latch_wait_time: 0.106869448 Write_keys: 131072 Write_size: 3538944 Prewrite_region: 1
# DB: test
# Is_internal: false
# Digest: 50a2e32d2abbd6c1764b1b7f2058d428ef2712b029282b776beb9506a365c0f1
# Stats: t:pseudo
# Num_cop_tasks: 1
# Cop_proc_avg: 0.07 Cop_proc_p90: 0.07 Cop_proc_max: 0.07 Cop_proc_addr: 172.16.5.87:20171
# Cop_wait_avg: 0 Cop_wait_p90: 0 Cop_wait_max: 0 Cop_wait_addr: 172.16.5.87:20171
# Mem_max: 525211
# Succ: false
insert into t select * from t;

Fields description

Note:

The unit of all the following time fields in the slow query log is "second".

Slow query basics:

  • Time: The print time of log.
  • Query_time: The execution time of a statement.
  • Query: A SQL statement. Query is not printed in the slow log, but the corresponding field is called Query after the slow log is mapped to the memory table.
  • Digest: The fingerprint of the SQL statement.
  • Txn_start_ts: The start timestamp and the unique ID of a transaction. You can use this value to search for the transaction-related logs.
  • Is_internal: Whether a SQL statement is TiDB internal. true indicates that a SQL statement is executed internally in TiDB and false indicates that a SQL statement is executed by the user.
  • Index_ids: The IDs of the indexes involved in a statement.
  • Succ: Whether a statement is executed successfully.
  • Backoff_time: The waiting time before retry when a statement encounters errors that require a retry. The common errors as such include: lock occurs, Region split, and tikv server is busy.

Memory usage fields:

  • Memory_max: The maximum memory space used during the execution period of a SQL statement (the unit is byte).

User fields:

  • User: The name of the user who executes this statement.
  • Conn_ID: The Connection ID (session ID). For example, you can use the keyword con:3 to search for the log whose session ID is 3.
  • DB: The current database.

TiKV Coprocessor Task fields:

  • Request_count: The number of Coprocessor requests that a statement sends.
  • Total_keys: The number of keys that Coprocessor has scanned.
  • Process_time: The total processing time of a SQL statement in TiKV. Because data is sent to TiKV concurrently, this value might exceed Query_time.
  • Wait_time: The total waiting time of a statement in TiKV. Because the Coprocessor of TiKV runs a limited number of threads, requests might queue up when all threads of Coprocessor are working. When a request in the queue takes a long time to process, the waiting time of the subsequent requests increases.
  • Process_keys: The number of keys that Coprocessor has processed. Compared with total_keys, processed_keys does not include the old versions of MVCC. A great difference between processed_keys and total_keys indicates that many old versions exist.
  • Cop_proc_avg: The average execution time of cop-tasks.
  • Cop_proc_p90: The P90 execution time of cop-tasks.
  • Cop_proc_max: The maximum execution time of cop-tasks.
  • Cop_proc_addr: The address of the cop-task with the longest execution time.
  • Cop_wait_avg: The average waiting time of cop-tasks.
  • Cop_wait_p90: The P90 waiting time of cop-tasks.
  • Cop_wait_max: The maximum waiting time of cop-tasks.
  • Cop_wait_addr: The address of the cop-task whose waiting time is the longest.

Memory mapping in slow log

You can query the contents of the slow query log by querying the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.SLOW_QUERY table. Each column name in the table corresponds to one field name in the slow log. For table structure, see the introduction to the SLOW_QUERY table in Information Schema.

Note:

Every time you query the SLOW_QUERY table, TiDB reads and parses the current slow query log.

Query example of SLOW_QUERY

Top-N slow queries

Query the Top 2 slow queries of users. Is_internal=false means excluding slow queries inside TiDB and only querying slow queries of users.

select query_time, query
from information_schema.slow_query
where is_internal = false
order by query_time desc
limit 2;

Usage example:

+--------------+------------------------------------------------------------------+
| query_time   | query                                                            |
+--------------+------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 12.77583857  | select * from t_slim, t_wide where t_slim.c0=t_wide.c0;          |
|  0.734982725 | select t0.c0, t1.c1 from t_slim t0, t_wide t1 where t0.c0=t1.c0; |
+--------------+------------------------------------------------------------------+

Query the Top-N slow queries of the test user

In the following example, the slow queries executed by the test user are queried, and the first two results are displayed in reverse order of execution time.

select query_time, query, user
from information_schema.slow_query
where is_internal = false
  and user = "test"
order by query_time desc
limit 2;

Usage example:

+-------------+------------------------------------------------------------------+----------------+
| Query_time  | query                                                            | user           |
+-------------+------------------------------------------------------------------+----------------+
| 0.676408014 | select t0.c0, t1.c1 from t_slim t0, t_wide t1 where t0.c0=t1.c1; | test           |
+-------------+------------------------------------------------------------------+----------------+

Query similar slow queries with the same SQL fingerprints

After querying the Top-N SQL statements, continue to query similar slow queries using the same fingerprints.

  1. Acquire Top-N slow queries and the corresponding SQL fingerprints.

    select query_time, query, digest
    from information_schema.slow_query
    where is_internal = false
    order by query_time desc
    limit 1;

    Usage example:

    +-------------+-----------------------------+------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | query_time  | query                       | digest                                                           |
    +-------------+-----------------------------+------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | 0.302558006 | select * from t1 where a=1; | 4751cb6008fda383e22dacb601fde85425dc8f8cf669338d55d944bafb46a6fa |
    +-------------+-----------------------------+------------------------------------------------------------------+
  2. Query similar slow queries with the fingerprints.

    select query, query_time
    from information_schema.slow_query
    where digest = "4751cb6008fda383e22dacb601fde85425dc8f8cf669338d55d944bafb46a6fa";

    Usage example:

    +-----------------------------+-------------+
    | query                       | query_time  |
    +-----------------------------+-------------+
    | select * from t1 where a=1; | 0.302558006 |
    | select * from t1 where a=2; | 0.401313532 |
    +-----------------------------+-------------+

Query slow queries with pseudo stats

select query, query_time, stats
from information_schema.slow_query
where is_internal = false
  and stats like '%pseudo%';

Usage example:

+-----------------------------+-------------+---------------------------------+
| query                       | query_time  | stats                           |
+-----------------------------+-------------+---------------------------------+
| select * from t1 where a=1; | 0.302558006 | t1:pseudo                       |
| select * from t1 where a=2; | 0.401313532 | t1:pseudo                       |
| select * from t1 where a>2; | 0.602011247 | t1:pseudo                       |
| select * from t1 where a>3; | 0.50077719  | t1:pseudo                       |
| select * from t1 join t2;   | 0.931260518 | t1:407872303825682445,t2:pseudo |
+-----------------------------+-------------+---------------------------------+

Parse other TiDB slow log files

TiDB uses the session variable tidb_slow_query_file to control the files to be read and parsed when querying INFORMATION_SCHEMA.SLOW_QUERY. You can query the contents of other slow query log files by modifying the value of the session variable.

set tidb_slow_query_file = "/path-to-log/tidb-slow.log"

Parse TiDB slow logs with pt-query-digest

Use pt-query-digest to parse TiDB slow logs.

Note:

It is recommended to use pt-query-digest 3.0.13 or later versions.

For example:

pt-query-digest --report tidb-slow.log

Usage example:

# 320ms user time, 20ms system time, 27.00M rss, 221.32M vsz
# Current date: Mon Mar 18 13:18:51 2019
# Hostname: localhost.localdomain
# Files: tidb-slow.log
# Overall: 1.02k total, 21 unique, 0 QPS, 0x concurrency _________________
# Time range: 2019-03-18-12:22:16 to 2019-03-18-13:08:52
# Attribute          total     min     max     avg     95%  stddev  median
# ============     ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= =======
# Exec time           218s    10ms     13s   213ms    30ms      1s    19ms
# Query size       175.37k       9   2.01k  175.89  158.58  122.36  158.58
# Commit time         46ms     2ms     7ms     3ms     7ms     1ms     3ms
# Conn ID               71       1      16    8.88   15.25    4.06    9.83
# Process keys     581.87k       2 103.15k  596.43  400.73   3.91k  400.73
# Process time         31s     1ms     10s    32ms    19ms   334ms    16ms
# Request coun       1.97k       1      10    2.02    1.96    0.33    1.96
# Total keys       636.43k       2 103.16k  652.35  793.42   3.97k  400.73
# Txn start ts     374.38E       0  16.00E 375.48P   1.25P  89.05T   1.25P
# Wait time          943ms     1ms    19ms     1ms     2ms     1ms   972us
.
.
.

Identify problematic SQL statements

Not all of the SLOW_QUERY statements are problematic. Only those whose process_time is very large increase the pressure on the entire cluster.

The statements whose wait_time is very large and process_time is very small are usually not problematic. This is because the statement is blocked by real problematic statements and it has to wait in the execution queue, which leads to a much longer response time.

admin show slow command

In addition to the TiDB log file, you can identify slow queries by running the admin show slow command:

admin show slow recent N
admin show slow top [internal | all] N

recent N shows the recent N slow query records, for example:

admin show slow recent 10

top N shows the slowest N query records recently (within a few days). If the internal option is provided, the returned results would be the inner SQL executed by the system; If the all option is provided, the returned results would be the user's SQL combinated with inner SQL; Otherwise, this command would only return the slow query records from the user's SQL.

admin show slow top 3
admin show slow top internal 3
admin show slow top all 5

TiDB stores only a limited number of slow query records because of the limited memory. If the value of N in the query command is greater than the records count, the number of returned records is smaller than N.

The following table shows output details:

Column nameDescription
startThe starting time of the SQL execution
durationThe duration of the SQL execution
detailsThe details of the SQL execution
succWhether the SQL statement is executed successfully. 1 means success and 0 means failure.
conn_idThe connection ID for the session
transcation_tsThe commit ts for a transaction commit
userThe user name for the execution of the statement
dbThe database involved when the statement is executed
table_idsThe ID of the table involved when the SQL statement is executed
index_idsThe ID of the index involved when the SQL statement is executed
internalThis is a TiDB internal SQL statement
digestThe fingerprint of the SQL statement
sqlThe SQL statement that is being executed or has been executed