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Connect to TiDB with Spring Boot

TiDB is a MySQL-compatible database, and Spring is a popular open-source container framework for Java. This document uses Spring Boot as the way to use Spring.

In this tutorial, you can learn how to use TiDB along with Spring Data JPA and Hibernate as the JPA provider to accomplish the following tasks:

  • Set up your environment.
  • Connect to your TiDB cluster using Hibernate and Spring Data JPA.
  • Build and run your application. Optionally, you can find sample code snippets for basic CRUD operations.

Prerequisites

To complete this tutorial, you need:

  • Java Development Kit (JDK) 17 or higher. You can choose OpenJDK or Oracle JDK based on your business and personal requirements.
  • Maven 3.8 or higher.
  • Git.
  • A TiDB cluster.

If you don't have a TiDB cluster, you can create one as follows:

If you don't have a TiDB cluster, you can create one as follows:

Run the sample app to connect to TiDB

This section demonstrates how to run the sample application code and connect to TiDB.

Step 1: Clone the sample app repository

Run the following commands in your terminal window to clone the sample code repository:

git clone https://github.com/tidb-samples/tidb-java-springboot-jpa-quickstart.git cd tidb-java-springboot-jpa-quickstart

Step 2: Configure connection information

Connect to your TiDB cluster depending on the TiDB deployment option you've selected.

  • TiDB Serverless
  • TiDB Dedicated
  • TiDB Self-Hosted
  1. Navigate to the Clusters page, and then click the name of your target cluster to go to its overview page.

  2. Click Connect in the upper-right corner. A connection dialog is displayed.

  3. Ensure the configurations in the connection dialog match your operating environment.

    • Endpoint Type is set to Public
    • Connect With is set to General
    • Operating System matches your environment.
  4. Click Create password to create a random password.

  5. Run the following command to copy env.sh.example and rename it to env.sh:

    cp env.sh.example env.sh
  6. Copy and paste the corresponding connection string into the env.sh file. The example result is as follows:

    export TIDB_HOST='{host}' # e.g. gateway01.ap-northeast-1.prod.aws.tidbcloud.com export TIDB_PORT='4000' export TIDB_USER='{user}' # e.g. xxxxxx.root export TIDB_PASSWORD='{password}' export TIDB_DB_NAME='test' export USE_SSL='true'

    Be sure to replace the placeholders {} with the connection parameters obtained from the connection dialog.

    TiDB Serverless requires a secure connection. Therefore, you need to set the value of USE_SSL to true.

  7. Save the env.sh file.

  1. Navigate to the Clusters page, and then click the name of your target cluster to go to its overview page.

  2. Click Connect in the upper-right corner. A connection dialog is displayed.

  3. Click Allow Access from Anywhere and then click Download TiDB cluster CA to download the CA certificate.

    For more details about how to obtain the connection string, refer to TiDB Dedicated standard connection.

  4. Run the following command to copy env.sh.example and rename it to env.sh:

    cp env.sh.example env.sh
  5. Copy and paste the corresponding connection string into the env.sh file. The example result is as follows:

    export TIDB_HOST='{host}' # e.g. tidb.xxxx.clusters.tidb-cloud.com export TIDB_PORT='4000' export TIDB_USER='{user}' # e.g. root export TIDB_PASSWORD='{password}' export TIDB_DB_NAME='test' export USE_SSL='false'

    Be sure to replace the placeholders {} with the connection parameters obtained from the connection dialog.

  6. Save the env.sh file.

  1. Run the following command to copy env.sh.example and rename it to env.sh:

    cp env.sh.example env.sh
  2. Copy and paste the corresponding connection string into the env.sh file. The example result is as follows:

    export TIDB_HOST='{host}' export TIDB_PORT='4000' export TIDB_USER='root' export TIDB_PASSWORD='{password}' export TIDB_DB_NAME='test' export USE_SSL='false'

    Be sure to replace the placeholders {} with the connection parameters, and set USE_SSL to false. If you are running TiDB locally, the default host address is 127.0.0.1, and the password is empty.

  3. Save the env.sh file.

Step 3: Run the code and check the result

  1. Execute the following command to run the sample code:

    make
  2. Run the request script in another terminal session:

    make request
  3. Check the Expected-Output.txt to see if the output matches.

Sample code snippets

You can refer to the following sample code snippets to complete your own application development.

For complete sample code and how to run it, check out the tidb-samples/tidb-java-springboot-jpa-quickstart repository.

Connect to TiDB

Edit the configuration file application.yml:

spring: datasource: url: ${TIDB_JDBC_URL:jdbc:mysql://localhost:4000/test} username: ${TIDB_USER:root} password: ${TIDB_PASSWORD:} driver-class-name: com.mysql.cj.jdbc.Driver jpa: show-sql: true database-platform: org.hibernate.dialect.TiDBDialect hibernate: ddl-auto: create-drop

After configuration, set the environment variables TIDB_JDBC_URL, TIDB_USER, and TIDB_PASSWORD to the actual values of your TiDB cluster. The configuration file provides default settings for these environment variables. If you do not configure the environment variables, the default values are as follows:

  • TIDB_JDBC_URL: "jdbc:mysql://localhost:4000/test"
  • TIDB_USER: "root"
  • TIDB_PASSWORD: ""

Data management: @Repository

Spring Data JPA manages data through the @Repository interface. To use the CRUD operations provided by JpaRepository, you need to extend the JpaRepository interface:

@Repository public interface PlayerRepository extends JpaRepository<PlayerBean, Long> { }

Then, you can use @Autowired for automatic dependency injection in any class that requires the PlayerRepository. This enables you to directly use CRUD functions. The following is an example:

@Autowired private PlayerRepository playerRepository;

Insert or update data

playerRepository.save(player);

For more information, refer to Insert data and Update data.

Query data

PlayerBean player = playerRepository.findById(id).orElse(null);

For more information, refer to Query data.

Delete data

playerRepository.deleteById(id);

For more information, refer to Delete data.

Next steps

Need help?

Ask questions on the Discord, or create a support ticket.

Ask questions on the Discord, or create a support ticket.

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