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TiDB Snapshot Backup and Restore Command Manual

This document describes the commands of TiDB snapshot backup and restore according to the application scenarios, including:

For more information about snapshot backup and restore, refer to:

Back up cluster snapshots

You can back up the latest or specified snapshot of the TiDB cluster using the tiup br backup full command. For more information about the command, run the tiup br backup full --help command.

tiup br backup full \ --pd "${PD_IP}:2379" \ --backupts '2022-09-08 13:30:00' \ --storage "s3://${backup_collection_addr}/snapshot-${date}?access-key=${access-key}&secret-access-key=${secret-access-key}" \ --ratelimit 128 \ --log-file backupfull.log

In the preceding command:

  • --backupts: The time point of the snapshot. The format can be TSO or timestamp, such as 400036290571534337 or 2018-05-11 01:42:23. If the data of this snapshot is garbage collected, the tiup br backup command returns an error and 'br' exits. If you leave this parameter unspecified, br picks the snapshot corresponding to the backup start time.
  • --ratelimit: The maximum speed per TiKV performing backup tasks. The unit is in MiB/s.
  • --log-file: The target file where br log is written.

During backup, a progress bar is displayed in the terminal, as shown below. When the progress bar advances to 100%, the backup is complete.

Full Backup <---------/................................................> 17.12%.

Back up a database or a table

Backup & Restore (BR) supports backing up partial data of a specified database or table from a cluster snapshot or incremental data backup. This feature allows you to filter out unwanted data from snapshot backup and incremental data backup, and back up only business-critical data.

Back up a database

To back up a database in a cluster, run the tiup br backup db command.

The following example backs up the test database to Amazon S3:

tiup br backup db \ --pd "${PD_IP}:2379" \ --db test \ --storage "s3://${backup_collection_addr}/snapshot-${date}?access-key=${access-key}&secret-access-key=${secret-access-key}" \ --ratelimit 128 \ --log-file backuptable.log

In the preceding command, --db specifies the database name, and other parameters are the same as those in Back up TiDB cluster snapshots.

Back up a table

To back up a table in a cluster, run the tiup br backup table command.

The following example backs up the test.usertable table to Amazon S3:

tiup br backup table \ --pd "${PD_IP}:2379" \ --db test \ --table usertable \ --storage "s3://${backup_collection_addr}/snapshot-${date}?access-key=${access-key}&secret-access-key=${secret-access-key}" \ --ratelimit 128 \ --log-file backuptable.log

In the preceding command, --db and --table specify the database name and table name respectively, and other parameters are the same as those in Back up TiDB cluster snapshots.

Back up multiple tables with table filter

To back up multiple tables with more criteria, run the tiup br backup full command and specify the table filters with --filter or -f.

The following example backs up tables that match the db*.tbl* filter rule to Amazon S3:

tiup br backup full \ --pd "${PD_IP}:2379" \ --filter 'db*.tbl*' \ --storage "s3://${backup_collection_addr}/snapshot-${date}?access-key=${access-key}&secret-access-key=${secret-access-key}" \ --ratelimit 128 \ --log-file backupfull.log

Back up statistics

Starting from TiDB v7.5.0, the br command-line tool introduces the --ignore-stats parameter. When you set this parameter to false, the br command-line tool supports backing up statistics of columns, indexes, and tables. In this case, you do not need to manually run the statistics collection task for the TiDB database restored from the backup, or wait for the completion of the automatic collection task. This feature simplifies the database maintenance work and improves the query performance.

If you do not set this parameter to false, the br command-line tool uses the default setting --ignore-stats=true, which means statistics are not backed up during data backup.

The following is an example of backing up cluster snapshot data and backing up table statistics with --ignore-stats=false:

tiup br backup full \ --storage local:///br_data/ --pd "${PD_IP}:2379" --log-file restore.log \ --ignore-stats=false

After backing up data with the preceding configuration, when you restore data, the br command-line tool automatically restores table statistics if table statistics are included in the backup (Starting from v8.0.0, the br command-line tool introduces the --load-stats parameter, which controls whether to restore backup statistics. The default behavior is to restore backup statistics. There is no need to set it to false in most cases):

tiup br restore full \ --storage local:///br_data/ --pd "${PD_IP}:2379" --log-file restore.log

When the backup and restore feature backs up data, it stores statistics in JSON format within the backupmeta file. When restoring data, it loads statistics in JSON format into the cluster. For more information, see LOAD STATS.

Encrypt the backup data

BR supports encrypting backup data at the backup side and at the storage side when backing up to Amazon S3. You can choose either encryption method as required.

Since TiDB v5.3.0, you can encrypt backup data by configuring the following parameters:

  • --crypter.method: Encryption algorithm, which can be aes128-ctr, aes192-ctr, or aes256-ctr. The default value is plaintext, indicating that data is not encrypted.
  • --crypter.key: Encryption key in hexadecimal string format. It is a 128-bit (16 bytes) key for the algorithm aes128-ctr, a 24-byte key for the algorithm aes192-ctr, and a 32-byte key for the algorithm aes256-ctr.
  • --crypter.key-file: The key file. You can directly pass in the file path where the key is stored as a parameter without passing in the crypter.key.

The following is an example:

tiup br backup full\ --pd ${PD_IP}:2379 \ --storage "s3://${backup_collection_addr}/snapshot-${date}?access-key=${access-key}&secret-access-key=${secret-access-key}" \ --crypter.method aes128-ctr \ --crypter.key 0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef

Restore cluster snapshots

You can restore a TiDB cluster snapshot by running the tiup br restore full command.

tiup br restore full \ --pd "${PD_IP}:2379" \ --with-sys-table \ --storage "s3://${backup_collection_addr}/snapshot-${date}?access-key=${access-key}&secret-access-key=${secret-access-key}" \ --ratelimit 128 \ --log-file restorefull.log

In the preceding command:

  • --with-sys-table: BR restores data in some system tables, including account permission data and SQL bindings, and statistics (see Back up statistics). However, it does not restore statistics tables (mysql.stat_*) and system variable tables (mysql.tidb and mysql.global_variables). For more information, see Restore tables in the mysql schema.
  • --ratelimit: The maximum speed per TiKV performing restore tasks. The unit is in MiB/s.
  • --log-file: The target file where the br log is written.

During restore, a progress bar is displayed in the terminal as shown below. When the progress bar advances to 100%, the restore task is completed. Then br will verify the restored data to ensure data security.

Full Restore <---------/...............................................> 17.12%.

Restore a database or a table

You can use br to restore partial data of a specified database or table from backup data. This feature allows you to filter out data that you do not need during the restore.

Restore a database

To restore a database to a cluster, run the tiup br restore db command.

The following example restores the test database from the backup data to the target cluster:

tiup br restore db \ --pd "${PD_IP}:2379" \ --db "test" \ --ratelimit 128 \ --storage "s3://${backup_collection_addr}/snapshot-${date}?access-key=${access-key}&secret-access-key=${secret-access-key}" \ --log-file restore_db.log

In the preceding command, --db specifies the name of the database to be restored and other parameters are the same as those in Restore TiDB cluster snapshots.

Restore a table

To restore a single table to a cluster, run the tiup br restore table command.

The following example restores the test.usertable table from Amazon S3 to the target cluster:

tiup br restore table \ --pd "${PD_IP}:2379" \ --db "test" \ --table "usertable" \ --ratelimit 128 \ --storage "s3://${backup_collection_addr}/snapshot-${date}?access-key=${access-key}&secret-access-key=${secret-access-key}" \ --log-file restore_table.log

In the preceding command, --table specifies the name of the table to be restored, and other parameters are the same as those in Restore a database.

Restore multiple tables with table filter

To restore multiple tables with more complex filter rules, run the tiup br restore full command and specify the table filters with --filter or -f.

The following example restores tables that match the db*.tbl* filter rule from Amazon S3 to the target cluster:

tiup br restore full \ --pd "${PD_IP}:2379" \ --filter 'db*.tbl*' \ --storage "s3://${backup_collection_addr}/snapshot-${date}?access-key=${access-key}&secret-access-key=${secret-access-key}" \ --log-file restorefull.log

Restore execution plan bindings from the mysql schema

To restore execution plan bindings of a cluster, you can run the tiup br restore full command, including the --with-sys-table option and also the --filter or -f option to specify the mysql schema to be restored.

The following is an example of restoring the mysql.bind_info table:

tiup br restore full \ --pd "${PD_IP}:2379" \ --filter 'mysql.bind_info' \ --with-sys-table \ --ratelimit 128 \ --storage "s3://${backup_collection_addr}/snapshot-${date}?access-key=${access-key}&secret-access-key=${secret-access-key}" \ --log-file restore_system_table.log

After the restore is completed, you can confirm the execution plan binding information with SHOW GLOBAL BINDINGS:

SHOW GLOBAL BINDINGS;

The dynamic loading of execution plan bindings after the restore is still undergoing optimization (related issues are #46527 and #46528). You need to manually reload the execution plan bindings after the restore.

-- Ensure that the mysql.bind_info table has only one record for builtin_pseudo_sql_for_bind_lock. If there are more records, you need to manually delete them. SELECT count(*) FROM mysql.bind_info WHERE original_sql = 'builtin_pseudo_sql_for_bind_lock'; DELETE FROM bind_info WHERE original_sql = 'builtin_pseudo_sql_for_bind_lock' LIMIT 1; -- Force to reload the binding information. ADMIN RELOAD BINDINGS;

Restore encrypted snapshots

After encrypting the backup data, you need to pass in the corresponding decryption parameters to restore the data. Ensure that the decryption algorithm and key are correct. If the decryption algorithm or key is incorrect, the data cannot be restored. The following is an example:

tiup br restore full\ --pd "${PD_IP}:2379" \ --storage "s3://${backup_collection_addr}/snapshot-${date}?access-key=${access-key}&secret-access-key=${secret-access-key}" \ --crypter.method aes128-ctr \ --crypter.key 0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef

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