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Deploy TiDB Operator in Kubernetes

This document describes how to deploy TiDB Operator in Kubernetes.

Prerequisites

Before deploying TiDB Operator, make sure the following items are installed on your machine:

Deploy the Kubernetes cluster

TiDB Operator runs in the Kubernetes cluster. You can refer to the document of how to set up Kubernetes to set up a Kubernetes cluster. Make sure that the Kubernetes version is v1.12 or higher. If you want to deploy a very simple Kubernetes cluster for testing purposes, consult the Get Started document.

TiDB Operator uses Persistent Volumes to persist the data of TiDB cluster (including the database, monitoring data, and backup data), so the Kubernetes cluster must provide at least one kind of persistent volumes. For better performance, it is recommended to use local SSD disks as the volumes. Follow this step to provision local persistent volumes.

It is recommended to enable RBAC in the Kubernetes cluster.

Install Helm

Refer to Use Helm to install Helm and configure it with the official PingCAP chart Repo.

Configure local persistent volumes

Prepare local volumes

Refer to Local PV Configuration to set up local persistent volumes in your Kubernetes cluster.

Install TiDB Operator

Create CRD

TiDB Operator uses Custom Resource Definition (CRD) to extend Kubernetes. Therefore, to use TiDB Operator, you must first create the TidbCluster CRD, which is a one-time job in your Kubernetes cluster.

kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/pingcap/tidb-operator/v1.1.6/manifests/crd.yaml

If the server cannot access the Internet, you need to download the crd.yaml file on a machine with Internet access before installing:

wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/pingcap/tidb-operator/v1.1.6/manifests/crd.yaml
kubectl apply -f ./crd.yaml

If the following message is displayed, the CRD installation is successful:

kubectl get crd
NAME                                 CREATED AT
backups.pingcap.com                  2020-06-11T07:59:40Z
backupschedules.pingcap.com          2020-06-11T07:59:41Z
restores.pingcap.com                 2020-06-11T07:59:40Z
tidbclusterautoscalers.pingcap.com   2020-06-11T07:59:42Z
tidbclusters.pingcap.com             2020-06-11T07:59:38Z
tidbinitializers.pingcap.com         2020-06-11T07:59:42Z
tidbmonitors.pingcap.com             2020-06-11T07:59:41Z

Installation

After the various CRDs above are created, you can install TiDB Operator on your Kubernetes cluster. There are two installation methods: online and offline.

Online installation

  1. Get the values.yaml file of the tidb-operator chart you want to install.

    mkdir -p ${HOME}/tidb-operator && \
    helm inspect values pingcap/tidb-operator --version=${chart_version} > ${HOME}/tidb-operator/values-tidb-operator.yaml

    Note:

    ${chart_version} represents the chart version of TiDB Operator. For example, v1.1.6. You can view the currently supported versions by running the helm search -l tidb-operator command.

  2. Configure TiDB Operator

    TiDB Operator will use the k8s.gcr.io/kube-scheduler image. If you cannot download the image, you can modify the scheduler.kubeSchedulerImageName in the ${HOME}/tidb-operator/values-tidb-operator.yaml file to registry.cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com/google_containers/kube-scheduler.

    You can modify other items such as limits, requests, and replicas as needed.

  3. Install TiDB Operator.

    helm install pingcap/tidb-operator --name=tidb-operator --namespace=tidb-admin --version=${chart_version} -f ${HOME}/tidb-operator/values-tidb-operator.yaml && \
    kubectl get po -n tidb-admin -l app.kubernetes.io/name=tidb-operator
  4. Upgrade TiDB Operator

    If you need to upgrade the TiDB Operator, modify the ${HOME}/tidb-operator/values-tidb-operator.yaml file, and then execute the following command to upgrade:

    helm upgrade tidb-operator pingcap/tidb-operator -f  ${HOME}/tidb-operator/values-tidb-operator.yaml

Offline installation

If your server cannot access the Internet, install TiDB Operator offline by the following steps:

  1. Download the tidb-operator chart

    If the server has no access to the Internet, you cannot configure the Helm repository to install the TiDB Operator component and other applications. At this time, you need to download the chart file needed for cluster installation on a machine with Internet access, and then copy it to the server.

    Use the following command to download the tidb-operator chart file:

    wget http://charts.pingcap.org/tidb-operator-v1.1.6.tgz

    Copy the tidb-operator-v1.1.6.tgz file to the target server and extract it to the current directory:

    tar zxvf tidb-operator.v1.1.6.tgz
  2. Download the Docker images used by TiDB Operator

    If the server has no access to the Internet, you need to download all Docker images used by TiDB Operator on a machine with Internet access and upload them to the server, and then use docker load to install the Docker image on the server.

    The Docker images used by TiDB Operator are:

    pingcap/tidb-operator:v1.1.6
    pingcap/tidb-backup-manager:v1.1.6
    bitnami/kubectl:latest
    pingcap/advanced-statefulset:v0.3.3
    k8s.gcr.io/kube-scheduler:v1.16.9

    Among them, k8s.gcr.io/kube-scheduler:v1.16.9 should be consistent with the version of your Kubernetes cluster. You do not need to download it separately.

    Next, download all these images using the following command:

    docker pull pingcap/tidb-operator:v1.1.6
    docker pull pingcap/tidb-backup-manager:v1.1.6
    docker pull bitnami/kubectl:latest
    docker pull pingcap/advanced-statefulset:v0.3.3
    
    docker save -o tidb-operator-v1.1.6.tar pingcap/tidb-operator:v1.1.6
    docker save -o tidb-backup-manager-v1.1.6.tar pingcap/tidb-backup-manager:v1.1.6
    docker save -o bitnami-kubectl.tar bitnami/kubectl:latest
    docker save -o advanced-statefulset-v0.3.3.tar pingcap/advanced-statefulset:v0.3.3

    Next, upload these Docker images to the server, and execute docker load to install these Docker images on the server:

    docker load -i tidb-operator-v1.1.6.tar
    docker load -i tidb-backup-manager-v1.1.6.tar
    docker load -i bitnami-kubectl.tar
    docker load -i advanced-statefulset-v0.3.3.tar
  3. Configure TiDB Operator

    TiDB Operator embeds a kube-scheduler to implement a custom scheduler. To configure the Docker image's name and version of this built-in kube-scheduler component, modify the ./tidb-operator/values.yaml file. For example, if kube-scheduler in your Kubernetes cluster uses the image k8s.gcr.io/kube-scheduler:v1.16.9, set ./tidb-operator/values.yaml as follows:

    ...
    scheduler:
      serviceAccount: tidb-scheduler
      logLevel: 2
      replicas: 1
      schedulerName: tidb-scheduler
      resources:
        limits:
          cpu: 250m
          memory: 150Mi
        requests:
          cpu: 80m
          memory: 50Mi
      kubeSchedulerImageName: k8s.gcr.io/kube-scheduler
      kubeSchedulerImageTag: v1.16.9
    ...

    You can modify other items such as limits, requests, and replicas as needed.

  4. Install TiDB Operator

    Install TiDB Operator using the following command:

    helm install ./tidb-operator --name=tidb-operator --namespace=tidb-admin
  5. Upgrade TiDB Operator

    If you need to upgrade TiDB Operator, modify the ./tidb-operator/values.yaml file, and then execute the following command to upgrade:

    helm upgrade tidb-operator ./tidb-operator

Customize TiDB Operator

To customize TiDB Operator, modify /home/tidb/tidb-operator/values-tidb-operator.yaml. The rest sections of the document use values.yaml to refer to /home/tidb/tidb-operator/values-tidb-operator.yaml

TiDB Operator contains two components:

  • tidb-controller-manager
  • tidb-scheduler

These two components are stateless and deployed via Deployment. You can customize resource limit, request, and replicas in the values.yaml file.

After modifying values.yaml, run the following command to apply this modification:

helm upgrade tidb-operator pingcap/tidb-operator --version=${chart_version} -f /home/tidb/tidb-operator/values-tidb-operator.yaml